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Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Octavo Publications. No. XLVI. 






LiTT.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., F.B.A. 






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Lnr.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., F.B.A. 


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rilHE MS. copy of this work was arranged by Professor Skeat 
but his death occurred before the proof-sheets could be 
submitted to him. 

The Council of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society therefore 
publish the work as Professor Skeat left it. 





Prefatory Remarks 

1. The suffix -acre :— Benacre 

2. The suffix -bach : — Debach 

3. The suffix -beck : — Gosbeck 

4. The suffix -bergh : — Babergh Hundred, Finborough 

5. The suffix -borough -bury :— Aldborough, Blythburgh, 

Burgh, Grundisburgh, Rumburgh, Bury St Edmund's, 
Chedburgh, Kettleburgh, Sudbury 6 

6. The suffix -bourx : — Blackbourn, Xewbourn, Sudbourn . TO 

7. The suffix -bridge: — Risbridge, Woodbridge . 10 

8. The suffix -brook: — Holbrook, Rushbrooke, Stradbrok(\ 

Washbrook, Wickham brook . . . . . 11 

9. The suffix -by : — Ashby, Barnby, Risb}', Wilby . . . 12 

10. The suffix -camp: Bulcau:ip 14 

11. The suffix -clay: — Hinderclay 14 

12. The suffix -dale: — Botesdale, Withersdale . ... 15 

13. The suffix -dene:— Depden, Elveden, Framsden, Frosten- 

den, Hundon, Monewden, Owsden, Rattlesden, Wautisden, 
Wetherden . .15 

14. The suffix -down:— Ballingdon, Brandon, Claydon, Darrasden, 

Hawkedon, Raydon or Reydon, Thorndon 18 

15. The suffix -edish or -eddish: — Brundish, Cavendish . 20 

16. The suffix -ey: — Eye, Bawdsey, Bungay, Campsey Ashe, 

Kirsey, Lindsey 21 

17. The suffix -field: — Ashfield, Bedfield, Bedingfield, Bradfield, 

Bramfield, Bredfield, Charsfield, Cockfield, Cratfield, Crow- 
field, Fressingfield, Homersfield, Huntingfield, Laxfield, 
Metfield, Mickfield, Pakefield, Redlingfiekl, Ringsfield, Shad- 
ingfield, Stanningfield, Stansfield, Sternfield, Waldingfield, 
Waldringfield, Wattisfield, Westei-field, Whatfield, Wingfiekl, 
Withersfield 24 



IS. The suffix -fleet: — Herringfleet . ..... 30 

19. The suffix -ford: Battisford, Blythford, Boxford, Bramford, 

Brockford, Carlford, Chillesford, Cosford, Cransford, Culford, 
Gleinsford, Kentford, Lackford, Marlesford, Melford, Mutford, 
Orford, Playford, Poslingford, Samford, Stratford, Thetford, 
Ufford, Wangford, Wilford, Yoxford 31 

20. The suffix -uate :- Burgate, Lidgate, Plomesgate . . 39 

21. The suffix -grave: — Gedgrave, Hargrave, Hengrave, Kes- 

grave, Palgrave, Redgrave 40 

22. The suffix -hale or -hall :— Aspall, Benhall, Blaxhall, Bux- 

hall, Foxhall, Ilketshall, Kelsale, Knettisball, Knodishall, 
Lawshall, Mildenhall, Peasenhall, Eickinghall, Ringshall, 
Spexhall, Stradishall, Uggeshall, Westhall ... 42 

23. The suffix -ham : — Akenhaui, Aldham, Aldringham, Bading- 

hani, Barham, Barnham, Barningham, Barsham, Baylham, 
Blakenham, Brantham, Brettenham, Bucklesham, Cavenhain, 
Chattiisham, Coddenham, Cretingham, Dalham, Darsham, 
I)eV)eiiham, Denham, (Santon) Downham, Elmham, Faken- 
ham, Falkenham, Fariiliam, Felsham, Finningbani, Fornham, 
Framlingham, Freckenham, Gislebam,Gislingham, Glemham, 
Helmingham, Henham, Heveninghani, Highham, Hintles- 
ham, Hitcham, Horham, Icklingham, Ingham, Langham, 
Lavenham, Layham, Letheringham, Martlesham, Mendhani, 
Mendlesbarn, ^lettingbam, Needbam Market, Pakenliam, 
Parbain, Redisham, Rendbatii, Rendlesbam, Rougham, 
Saxham, Saxmundbam, Sbottisbam, Sobam, Somersbam, 
Stonbam, Sylebam, Tbelnetbam, Tbornbam, Tuddenbam, 
Walsbarn, Wattisbam, Wenbam, Wbelnetbani, Wickbam 
Market, Wickbambrook, Wickbam Skeitb, WilHngbam, 
Wilbsbam, Witnesbam, Worlingbam, Wortbam, Wi-entbam 47 

24. The suffix -haugh : — Pettaugb G') 

25. The suffix -heath : — Horniiigsbeatb, Lakenbeatb, Leaven- 

beatb ........... 66 

26. The suffix -hill: — Haverbill 67 

27. The suffix -hithe: — Covehitbe 67 

28. The suffix -hok or -hoo : — Hoo, Culpbo, Dallinglioo, Tbingoe, 

Wixoe 68 

29. The suffix -holt:— Bergbolt, Occold, llamsholt, Sdutliolt 70 

30. The suffix -hurst :— Hartest 70 



31. Thk «l'FF1X -inu : — Ashbockiiig, Barking, Bealiugs, Blything, 

Cowlinge, Greeting, Exning, Gedding, Gipping, Milden, 
Nedging, Shimpling, Sweffling, Thredling, Wratting . 71 

32. The suffix -land: — Kessingland, LothingLiiid, Xaylaud, 

Shelland, Swillaud 7") 

33. The suffix -ley : — Badley, Beatley, Bradley, Brockley, Butlcy, 

Cookley, Eleiglj, Gazeley, Hadleigh, Haughley, Hemluy, 
Henley, Hollesley, Kirkley, Oakley, Otley, Shelley, Shotley, 
Sotterley, Trimley, Westley, Yaxley 77 

34. The suffix -low : — Thurlow 81 

35. The suffix -meadow : — Shipmeadow 82 

36. The suffix -mere : — Bosmere, Hartisincre, Livcnucre, Rush- 

mere, Seiner .......... 82 

37. The suffix -fool : — Walpole 83 

38. The suffix -set or -sett : — Bricett, Elmsett, Hessett, 

AVetheringsett, Wissett .84 

39. The suffix -stall : — Eurstall, Tuustall .... 86 

4U. The suffix -stead : — Belstead, Box.stead, Harkstead, Haw- 
.stead, Heastead, Linstead, Xettlestead, Polstead, Sax.stead, 
Staustead, Whepstead, Wherstead 86 

41. The suffix -.stoke or -stock :— Stoke- by-Clare, Stoke-by- 

Nayland, Stoke Ash, Tostock 89 

42. The suffix -stoxe : — Chediston 89 

43. The suffix -stow : — Stow, ,West Stow, Stowmarket, Stow 

Upland, Felixstowe 89 

44. The suffix -thorpe : — Thorpe-Morieux, Thorpe, Thorpe-by- 

Ix worth, Westhorpe 91 

45. The suffix -toft : — Lowestoft 92 

46. The suffix -ton: — Acton, Alderton, Alpheton, Ampton, 

Assington, Athelington, Bacton, Barton, Belton, Beyton, 
Bildeston, Blundeston, Boyton, Brampton, Brandeston, 
Browston, Carlton, Chelmondi.ston, Chevington, Chilton, 
Cloi)ton, Coney Weston, Corton, Cotton, Dennington, 
Den.stone, Drinkstone, Easton, Edwardstone, Erwarton, 
Euston, Flempton, Flixton, Flowton, Frestou, Friston, Fritton, 
Gorleston, Gunton, Hacheston, Harleston, Hasketon, Heni- 
ingstone, Hintou, Holton, Honington, Hopton, Hunston, 
Kedington, Kenton, Kettlebaston, Kirton, Leiston, Leving- 


ton, Market Weston, Melton, ]\Iiddleton, Moulton, Xacton, 
Newton, Norton, Nowton, Ofton, Oiilton, Preston, Sapiston, 
Sibton, Somerleyton, Sothertou, Sproughton, Stanton, Stuston, 
Stutton, Svitton, Tannington, Tattingstone, Theberton, 
Thorington, Thrandeston, Thurlston, Thurston, Troston, 
Ubbeston, Walton, Wenhaston, Westleton, Weston, Market 
AVeston, Whitton, Winston, Wiston, Woolverstone, Worling- 
ton, Wyverstone ......... 92 

47. The suffix -tree: — Pettistree, Thedwestry . . . . Ill 

48. The suffix -wade: — Cattawade Ill 

49. The suffix -well : — Badwell Ash, Bardwell, Bradwell, Bright- 

well, Bromeswell, Elmswell, Eriswell, Herringswell, Orwell, 
Sizewell, Wordwell 

50. The suffix -wich or -wick : — Dunwich 


51. The suffix -wold : — Southwold 

52. The suffix -wood : — Hazlewood . 

Hard wick, Ipswich, 



53. The suffix -worth : — Bi'aiseworth, Chelsworth, Dunning- 

worth, Halesworth, Hepworth, Ickworth, Ixworth, Timworth, 
Worlingworth 116 

54. The suffix -yard: — Bruisyard 118 

55. Some other names : — Cornard, Barrow, Beccles, Beck Row, 

Boulge, Broine, Bures St Mary, Capel, Clare, Colneis, Combs, 
Copdock, Cove, EUough, Eyke, Groton, Hoxne, Iken, Land- 
guard, Loes, Bound, Mellis, Onehouse, Rede, Rishangles, 
Snape, Steven, Thwaite, Wey bread, Woolpit . . . 118 

56. Concluding remarks 125 

Index 127 


Prefatory Remarks. 

To the Cambridge Antiquarian Society will always belong 
the credit of initiating a series of works upon the Place-names 
of Counties, founded upon strictly scientific investigation. My 
Place-names of Cambridgeshire was published by them in 1901; 
those of Huntingdonshire in 1903 ; and of Bedfordshire in 
1906. My Place-names of Hertfordshire was published by the 
East Herts. Archaeological Society in 1904 ; and of Berkshire, 
by the Clarendon Press, in 1911. Mr W. H. Duignan, of 
Walsall, published his Notes upon Staffordshire Place-names 
in 1902 ; and upon those of Worcestershire in 1905, and has 
just given us (1912) an account of those of Warwickshire. 
The West Riding Place-names, by Prof. Moorman of Leeds, 
was published by the Thoresby Society in 1910 ; and the 
Place-names of Lancashire, by Dr H. C. Wyld and Dr T. O. 
Hirst, appeared in 1911. This makes ten counties in all. 

Being anxious to increase the series, I now attempt to 
give some account of the Place-names of Suffolk. I was led 
to select this county because Dr Copiuger, in his six volumes 
of Collections for a History of Suffolk, has taken the enormous 
trouble of collecting all the old spellings of place-names which 
his exhaustive researches enabled him to discover, duly entering 
them under their respective articles, in alphabetical order ; and 
since such a collection of old forms constitutes no inconsider- 
able portion of the task of the investigator, I was under the 
impression that all due preparation had been made. I found 
his work of very great service, but he unfortunately made the 
regrettable mistake of omitting to indicate his authorities ! 
The result was, of course, that the principal books of reference, 
such as Domesday Book, the Red Book of the Exchequer, the 
Hundred Rolls, Testa de Nevill, and the Inquisitiones post 
Mortem had to be consulted in detail all over again. Still, 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 1 


I did not find it necessary to go further, as the material was 
then ample ; and I now give the references for all the more 
important forms. 

Further information as to the methods pursued and the 
results to be expected can be found in the introductions to my 
previous essays of the same character, and need not be here 


The following is a list of the more important sources of 
information, with the abbreviations that denote them. 

D.B. — Domesday Book (part relating to Suffolk). The page quoted 
does not refer to the Book as a whole, but to the paging of the 
Facsimile of the part relating to Suffolk. 

E.D.D. — English Dialect Dictionary. 

F.A. — Feudal Aids (Kecord Series) ; vol. i. 

H.R.— Rotuli Hundredorum, vol. i. 

Ipm. — Calendarium Inquisitionum post ^lortem sive Escaetarum ; 
ed. J. Caley ; vol. i. (Record Series). 

N.E.D.— New English Dictionary (Oxford). 

R.B.— Red Book of the Exchequer ; ed. W. D. Selby (Rolls Series). 

T.N.— Testa de Xevill (temp. Henry III and Edw. I). 

V.E. — Valor Ecclesiasticus ; temp. Henry VIII. 

Of course I constantly refer to the well-known editions of 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters by Kemble and Birch, to Thorpe's 
Diplomatarium JEvi Saxonici, and to Earle's Select Charters, 
Also, to the Crawford Charters, ed. Napier and Stevenson ; 
and to Searle's Onomasticon, from which I quote Anglo-Saxon 
personal names, verifying them in many instances by a reference 
to the Charters. Amongst numerous books of reference wliich 
I have consulted, I may particularise the following : 

Bardsley, Rev. C. W. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Sur- 
names. London, 1891. 

Bjorkman, E. Nordische Personennamen in England. Halle a. S., 

BoswoRTH, Rev. J. and Toller, Prof. T. N. An Anglo-Saxon 
Dictionary. Oxford, 1882. 

CoplNGER, W. A. The County of Suffolk : its History as disclosed 
by Existing Records. London. 5 vols. 1904-5. 

DuiGNAX, W. H. Notes on Staflfordshire Place-names. London, 1902 

. Worcestershire Place-names. London. 1905. 


M^Clurk, E. British Placo-namos in their Historical Setting. 

London, 1910. 
MiDDENDORF, Dr H. Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch, Halle, 1902. 
Moorman, F. W., B.A., Ph.D. The Place-names of the West Riding 

of Yorkshire. Thoresby Society, 1910. 
NiELSON, 0., Ph.D. Olddansko Persoiniavne. Kjobenhavn, 1883. 
Rygh, O. (5amle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavno. Kristiania, 

Searle, Rev. W. G., M.A. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. Cam- 
bridge, 1897. 
Taylor, Rev. J., Litt.D., LL.D. Names and their Histories. London, 

Turner, J. Horsfall. Yorkshire Place-names, as recorded in the 

Yorkshire Domesday Book. Bingley ; printed for the Author. 
Victoria History of the County of Suffolk. 
Wyld, Prof. H. C. and Hirst, T. 0., M.A., Ph.D. The Place-names 

of Lancashire. London, 1911. 
Zachrisson, R. E. a Contribution to the Study of Anglo-Norman 

Influence on English Place-names. Lund, 1909. 

I have also consulted the following works that have special 
reference to the County : 

KiRBY, J. The Suflfolk Traveller. 2nd ed. London, 1764. 
Raven, Rev. J. J. The History of Suffolk. London, 1895. 
Shorberl, F. Suftblk; being vol. xiv. of The Beauties of England 

and Wales. London, 1813. 
Walters, Cuming. Bygone Suffolk. London, n.d. 

I am grateful for several hints that these local books have 
afforded ; but cannot help regretting that (with the notable 
exception of the Victoria History) they occasionally drop into 
etymology, with reprehensible results. There seems to be a 
rather general notion, in local works, that the river Gipping 
gave its name to Ipswich ; with other similar fables. 

The Place-names are arranged in alphabetical order 
according to the suffixes which they contain ; this avoids much 

The suffixes found in Suffolk are, most of them, readily 
intelligible, and may conveniently be here enumerated. The 

chief ones are: acre, -bach, -beck, -bei-gh, -borough {-bury), 

-bourn, -bridge, -brook, -by, -camp, -clay, -dale, -dene {-den), 
-doivn {-don), -edish, -ey (-ea), -field, -fleet, -ford, -gate, -grave, 
-hale {-hall), -ham, -haugh, -Jieath, -hill, -ho {-hoe), -holt, -hurst, 



-ing, -land, -ley, -loiv, -oneadoiv, -mere, -pool, -set, -stall, -stead, 
-stoke, -stone, -stow, -thorpe, -toft, -ton, -tree, -wade, -well, -wich 
(-wick), -tvold, -ivood, -worth, -yard. 

To these I add a few names that cannot be included amongst 
such compounds. 

The list of names is from Kelly's Post Office Directory of 

The atlases consulted are Bacon's County Atlas, Philips' 
County Atlas, and Pigot's County Atlas (1831). The last of 
these gives the boundaries of the hundreds, which are very 
clearly shown in the map prefixed to Kirby's Suffolk Traveller. 
I have also made frequent use of the ordnance map upon the 
one-inch scale. 

The various suffixes will now be discussed, in alphabetical 
order, as given above. 

1. Acre. 

The suffix -acre represents the A.S. (ecer, a field. It only 
occurs in Benacre. 

Benacre. Between Lowestoft and Southwold. Spelt 
Benakr', H.E,.; Benagra, D.B., p. 182\ From A.S. hean, bean ; so 
that the sense is 'bean-field.' The Supplement to Bosworth 
and Toller quotes the phrase "secer beanlandes," a field of bean- 
land, from Kemble, CD. iii. 366. Ill s,pelt bean-eccer in Birch, 
C.S. ii. 18, 1. 18. 

2. Bach. 

This interesting word only occurs as a suffix in Debach. 
It is the prov. E. bach{e), a valley through which a stream 
flows; M.E. bache or bach, as in Layamon, and in P. Plowman, 
C. viii. 159, discussed, s.v. Bache, in the N.E.D. The A.S. 
forms are bcBC, bee, m. and n. ; bcece, bece, as given in the 
Supplement to Bosworth and Toller, p. 60. We may explain 
it simply by ' valley ' ; remembering that it is etymologically 
connected with the prov. E. beck, a stream. 

Debach. Spelt Debeth, error for Debech (by the common 
error of writing t for c, or of misreading), Ipm. ; Debaht, error 
for Debahc (= Debach), H.R. D.B, has Depebecs, p. 240 ; 

1 The reference here, and elsewhere, is to the Part of the Facsimile edition 
of Domesday Book relating to Suffolk, photozincographed in 1863. 


Depehek, p. 262 ; so that it represents the A.S. dat. form 
deopan hcuce, lit. 'deep valley'; which explains the spelling 
Dehenbeis (with n), in D.B., p. 12G. See Birch, C.S. iii. 344 
(no. 1111), where we find : — " of tham diopan bcece." 

The present local pronunciation is Debbidge, in strict 
accordance with the usual popular sound-changes. 

8. Beck. 
This well known prov. E. word for ' a small stream ' is 
known in Suffolk and Norfolk as well as in the North. It 
occurs in Gosbeck. 

GosBECK ; to the E. of Needham Market. Spelt Gosebeck, 
Gosebek, Ipm. From A.S. gds, a goose. It simply means 
'goose-brook,' or 'goose-stream.' Kemble has a Gosebroc, lit. 
' goose-brook.' 

4. Bergh. 

This suffix not only occurs in Babergh, the name of a 
hundred, but also, as the old forms show, in Finborough. The 
confusion of bej-gh with borough is common, though they were 
kept separate in the older forms of our language. Bergh 
represents the A.S. beorh, a hill, a barrow, a mound ; the 
modern form is barroiu. 

Babergh hundred. Spelt Baben-berga, D.B., p. 12; but 
the second b is an error for d, owing to the influence of the 
third b. Baberga also occurs, D.B., pp. 223, 225, 271. More 
correctly, Badbergh (hundred), Badberewe (hundred), H.R. ; 
Baddebury hundred, Ipm.; so that the D.B. form should have 
been Baden-berga (with a Latin -a suffixed). Baden is the A.S. 
Badan, as in Badan-den, Badan-pyt ; both in Kemble ; and 
Badan is the gen. of Bada. The sense is ' Bada's hill,' or 
' Bada's barrow.' The change from db to modern b is well 
illustrated by Babraham (Cambs.), originally Badburgeham, 
meaning 'Badburh's home,' or 'Badburh's ham.' 

Finborough. There is a Finborough to the S.W. of 
Stowmarket, and a Great Finborough to the W. of it. The 
suffix -borough has been substituted for an earlier -bergh. We 
find Finebiirge in R.B. and Finebury in Ipm.; but Fitieberg in 


H.R.; and Fineberga in D.B., pp, 9 and 386 ; Finbergh in Ipm., 
p. 55 ; and Finbarotue even in V.E. The earliest spelling is 
Finheorh, in a Wilts, charter, dated 957 ; though perhaps in a 
copy of later date ; Birch, C,S. iii. 186. The name is a 
compound ; and the former element may be safely identified 
with the A.S. wordy^n, 'a heap,' which is fairly well authenti- 
cated, and not only occurs alone, but in the compovmds llm-fin, 
a lime-heap, or heap of lime, and wudu-fm, a heap of wood ; 
see the note in Napier's Glosses, p. 66, gloss 2456. The sense 
is, accordingly, ' a heap-barrow,' or an artificial mound made by 
heaping up materials. Near Great Finborough Hall there is a 
tumulus named the Devil's Hill. 

5. Borough, Bury. 

Borough is the usual modern E. form of the A.S. hurh, a 
fort, borough, town ; and hury represents its dative case hyrig ; 
so that the two may be taken together. Borough occurs in 
Burgh, Aldborough, Blythburgh, Grundisburgh and Rumburgh. 
Bury occurs alone in Bury St Edmund's and in the compounds 
Chedburgh, Kettleburgh, Sudbury. 

Burgh. There are three places with this name referred to 
in Domesday Book. Burgh. Three miles N.W. of Wood- 
bridge. Spelt Burc, D.B., p. 25 ; Burch, p. 70 ; Burh, p. 212 ; 
Burg, p. 301 ; which represent the A.S. hurh, a fort ; mod. E. 
borough. According to the map of Roman Suffolk in the 
Victoria County History this is on the line of the Roman road 
from Stratford St Mary to Dunwich and is on the site of the 
Roman station Combretonium, 

Burgh. On the Waveney, at the beginning of Breydon 
Water. Spelt Burch, D.B., p. 329. There is a celebrated castle 
there, of Roman origin. This Burgh Castle is that mentioned 
in Beda, Hist. Eccl. iii. 19 — "in castro quodam quod lingua 
Anglorum Cnobheres burg, id est urbs Cnobheri, uocatur." So 
that its name in Beda's time meant ' Cnobhere's burgh.' But 
Cnobhere was evidently forgotten at the time of the Norman 
Conquest, and it has become simply Burgh. 

Burgh. In Colneis Hundred. Spelt Burch, D.B., pp. 68, 
119 ; Burg, D.B., p. 286. This probably represents the Roman 


fort, known in later times as Walton Castle, near Felixstowe, 
now washed away by the encroachments of the sea. 

Aldborough, or (in Kelly's Directory) Aldeburgh. Spelt 
Aldeburc in D.B., p. 71. The e may be explained as the 
termination of the Aveak feminine snffix of the nominative 
case ; A.S. seo ealde burJt, Mercian seo aide burh, i.e. ' the old 
borough.' Prof. Moorman thus explains Aldborough in the 
West Riding, and quotes, from a document of the thirteenth 
century, the entry : — " Aldeburgh, Vetus Burgh." It is clear 
that the river Aide took its name from the town, and not 
conversely. Many river-names are more modern than some 
suppose them to be. See Debenham. 

There is a difficulty about the development of the primary 
vowel ; since the 0. Merc, aid has given us the form old. 
However, this modern adjective is really due to Norman 
influence, which lengthened the a before Id, so as to produce 
an early Mid. E. form did. But in the phrase seo aide burh, 
the final e of aide easily dropped out ; and then the old short 
a remained short (or was shortened) before the combination Idb. 

Blythburgh ; or borough on the river Blythe. Spelt 
Bliburg in R.B., H.R., T.N.; because the Norman scribes failed 
to pronounce the E. th ; also Bliburgh, H.R. In D.B., the E. 
voiced th was written d, so that it appears as Blideburc ; p. o. 
The river-name Blythe is old ; there was a river named Blithe 
in Northamptonshire, mentioned in a charter dated 944 ; see 
Birch, C.S. iii. 541, four lines from the bottom ; from the A.S. 
blithe, ' the blithe,' or ' pleasant.' Hence also Blytheford and 

Grundisburgh. Spelt Qrundesburgh, Grundesburg, Ipm. ; 
Grundisbur, H.R. ; Grundesbiirh, D.B., p. 70; with many slight 
variants of no importance, but all implying the same origin ; 
I may notice GroiULdesburgh and Groiindesborough. There is 
no such name as Grund recorded in English, but Rygh gives 
Grundi as a Norse name, which occurs in rather numerous 
place-names abroad. Hence the sense may be ' Grundi's 
borough ' ; and we may attribute the name to Norse influence. 

RUMBURGH. I do not know where to find the early forms; 


but Dr Copinger gives us ten, viz. Rumberwe, Romboroughe, 
Rumburn (?), Rumbiug(?); and Romborough, Romburgh, 
Romburg, Romborow, Romborrow, Romebury, The A.S. form 
may Avell have been rum-hurh, i.e. roomy or wide borough. 
We may exemplify this by comparing it with Rum-cofa, 
perhaps 'wide cove,' given in the A.S. Chronicle, under the 
date 915, as the old name of Runcorn (Cheshire); and especially 
with rum-heorgas, ' wide barrows,' in a charter dated 972, the 
authenticity of which has been challenged, but apparently for 
no good reason ; see Birch, C S., iii. 589, last line. The almost 
total absence of a vowel after the m is much against the 
explanation ' Ruma's borough.' Dr Wyld explains the Lanes. 
Rumworth as 'Ruma's worth,' and at the same time gives us 
Rumhurgh as the form of Rumburgh, Suff., as occurring in the 
Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, ii. A. 3289, dated 1409. This is 
the best spelling, and supports my explanation. 

Bury. This form occurs alone, and represents the A.S. 
hyrig, dat. case of barh, a borough. The dat. case is common 
in place-names, as the prep, cet, 'at,' was often either ex- 
pressed or understood before them. Hence, for example, the 
surname Atterbury, from the A.S. formula cet tJuere hyrig, 'at 
the borough.' At a later time, when the dative had been assimi- 
lated to the nominative, and the gender of the substantive had 
been changed from fem. to masc, we find the formula at then 
borough, which gave the surname Attenborough. The town's 
name also appears as Bury St Edmund's, 'at the borough of 
St Edmund'; from the famous East Anglian king and saint 
who was buried there, and whose death is fully described by 
^Ifric, in his Lives of the Saints, The A.S. Chronicle gives his 
slaughter by the Danes under the date 870; and the form 'sancte 
Eadmundes byrig' in 1107. In an A.S. Charter dated 945, Bury 
is alluded to as "in loco qui dicitur tet Bwderices wirthe" ; 
and again, in Ethelweard's Chronicle, under the date 870, as 
^' in..Beadimcesuuyrthe" ', so that the original name of Bury 
was really ' Beaduric's worth.' See the suffix WORTH (below). 

Beaduric is compounded of beadu, battle, and rw, dominiou. 
Misspelt and explained 'power in prayer' in Bygone Suffolk, p. 7 9. 


Chedburgh. To the S.W. of Bury. Despite the modern 
form, I refer this to the suffix hnry, though it makes no 
difference to the sense. Spelt CVier^tt^r^e, Ipm.; Cedeheria {\s\\\\ 
Norman ce for che), D.B., p. 208. Dr Copinger gives several 
spellings, of which the best are : — Cheddebur, Chedeberi, Chede- 
berwe, Ghedebor, Chedebury. It is hardly possible to say 
whether the suffix was bergh or bury] I only place it here for 
convenience, though I suspect that it once ended in bergh, 
despite the spelling Chedburye in Ipm. (a.d. 1262). The prefix 
Chede- represents the A.S. Ceddan, gen. of the known name 
Gedda; hence the sense is ' Cedda's bury,' or ' Cedda's barrow.' 
For the suffix bergh, 'a barrow,' see Babergh (above). 

Kettleburgh. Near Framlingham. I suppose that the 
suffix was at first bury, in deference to the forms in D.B., viz. 
Cetelbirig, p. 27, Chettlebiriga, p. 26, Ketelbiria, p. 89 ; but it 
also has Kettleberga, p. 134, and we find Ketelebruge (for 
-burge) in R.B. But the suffix was certainly confused with 
bergh, 'a barrow' (see Babergh), as shown by Ketelberghe, 
Ipm., Keteleber, H.R., Kettleberg, T.N. The prefix is exactly 
the same as in Kettlewell, in the West Riding, which, as Prof. 
Moorman explains, is not from a genitive Ketils, but from a 
genitive Ketilan, in which the -an gave rise to the -e in 
Ketel-e- in some of the forms above. Ketila was a pet name 
for some form beginning with Ketel- or Ketil-, such as Ketel- 
berht or Ketil-frith. Hence the sense is ' Ketila's bury ' ; 
possibly 'Ketila's barrow.' Ketil, Norse Ketill, was a famous 
Scandinavian name, and appears in many Norwegian place- 
names. This is a clear case of Norse influence. 

Sudbury. "Anciently called South-Burgh, as Norwich is 
said to have been called North-Burgh," Kirby. Here there is 
no doubt as to the suffix, nor as to the origin of the name. 
We find Sutberie in D.B., p. 12 ; Suthbury, Ipm.; Sudbyr, H.R.; 
from the dat. case Suthbyrig, which actually occurs (with 
reference to Sudbury) in a Suffolk document known as the 
Will of ^Ifflged ; see Birch, C.S. iii. 603, 1. 7. Hence the sense 
is 'South bury'; from the A.S. suth, south. 

10 the place-names of suffolk 

6. Bourn. 

Bourn means a burn, or small river (A.S. ham) ; and occurs 
in Blackbourn, the name of a hundred, and in the place-names 
Newbourn and Sudbourn ; all of obvious origin. 

Blackbourn. This appears in D.B., p. 11, as Blachruna h'. 
and Blackebrune, p. 313, and means 'black bourn.' Ixworth, 
Bardwell, and Fakenham are all in Blackbourn hundred ; so 
tliat the stream here intended is that which flows by all these 
places, and enters the. Little Ouse below Euston Park, 

Newbourn. This is the name of a village, which is so 
called from a stream that flows through it southward, and 
then, turning to the east, enters the river Deben at Kirton 
Creek, to the N.E. of Kirton. Curiously enough, the name is 
very old, and occurs as Neuhurne in R.B. ; Neubrunna, D.B., 
p. 178. Dr Copinger gives several old spellings of it, all without 
any reference. However, the sense is obvious. 

SUDBOURNE. To the S.W. of Aldeborough. Spelt Sutburna 
in D.B,, p. 72 ; Sudburna, D.B., p. 207 ; Sutborne in a late A.S. 
charter, in Kemble, CD. iv. 245, 1. 7 from the bottom. From 
the A.S. suth-biirn, i.e. ' South burn.' Sudbourne Marshes are 
traversed by a maze of confluent streams, the waters of which 
find their way to the river Aide. Sudbourne Park is con- 
siderably to the south of the village, and the reference may be 
to the stream which flows from the Park into the Butley river. 

7. Bridge. 

This sufiix, of obvious meaning, only occurs in Risbridge 
and Woodbridge. 

Risbridge. This is the name of a hundred only, in the 
extreme west and south-west of the county. The chief river 
hereabouts is the Stour, and the hundred may well have been 
named from a bridge over it, in the days when bridges were 
scarce. We find the forms Risbrigg, H.R.; Riseh'ige, T.N.; 
and Risebruge in D.B., p. 11. The e in Rise- strongly suggests 
the genitive suffix -en, later form of -an, from a personal name 


iu -«. Both in Ris-bridge and in Ris-by, we should suppose 
that the reference is to the maker of the bridge or to the 
founder of the town or village. If the name is that also found 
in Risborough (Bucks.) it certainly had an h before the r. 
With respect to Risborough, we find three forms of various 
dates, viz. Hrisan, gen. of Hrisa ; the later form Hrisen, for 
Hrisan ; and the form Hris-, without any suffix at all. The 
references are as follows : — Hrisan-hyrge, Thorpe, Diplonia- 
tarium, p. 153, last line; Hrisan-heorgan, id. p. .553; Hrisen- 
beorgas, id. p. 549 ; Hris-beorge, id. p. 331, 1. 5. I should 
therefore explain Risb ridge as meaning 'Hrisa's bridge.' There 
was also a Norse name Hrisi ; see Risby. Hrisa was probably 
its Anglo-Saxon equivalent. 

Woodbridge. The sense is obvious. But it is worth 
notice that the Norman often pronounced wood (A.S. wiidu) 
as 'ood, without the tv. Hence we find the spelling Udebryge 
in D.B., p. 27 ; but, by the time the scribe (or another scribe) 
arrived at p. 90, he found it better to spell it Wudebrgge. 

8. Brook. 

This well-known suffix occurs in Holbrook, Rushbrooke, 
Stradbroke, Washbrook, and Wickhambrook. 

Holbrook. Spelt Holebrok, Ipm.; Holebroc, H.R.; D.B., 
p. 29 ; A.S. Holen-broc, with reference to Suffolk (according 
to Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iv. 110, 1. 4); but a better form is 
Holan-brdc{e) for which Kemble gives many references. Here 
holan is for holum, the old dative form. The place-name is 
best represented by the nom. hoi brdc, 'hollow-brook'; i.e. a 
brook whose banks rise above it. The brook flows into the 
Stour at Holbrook Bay. 

Rushbrooke. Spelt Rescebroc, H.R. ; Ri/scebroc, D.B., 
p. 166 ; Ryssebroc, in iElfgar's Will, in Thorpe, Diplom. p. 508 ; 
better Riscbrvc, Birch, C.S. ii. 81. From A.S. rise (also resce), 
a rush ; and broc. The sense is 'rush brook.' 

Stradbroke. There is here but a small brook, flowing 
northward towards the W^aveney. We find Stradbroke inaner 


de Eia Jionore, with reference to Eye; Ipm. Ill spelt Statebroc, 
D.B., p. 137. In Matt. v. 41, where the A.V. has "a mile," 
the Latin version has mille passus, and the A.S. version has 
thusend stapa, lit. "a thousand of steps"; but the Northumbrian 
version has thusend strwdena, showing that there was once a 
word st7'wda, m., or strwde, f , meaning "a stride" or "a step," 
the obvious original whence the verb to straddle is derived. 
Hence Strad brook simply means 'a brook across which one can 
easily stride' or straddle. 

Washbrook. To the S.W. of Ipswich. The brook flows 
eastward into the Orwell. The etymology is by no means 
obvious, as it has only been associated with the verb to wash 
in popular etymology. There was a personal name Wassa, gen. 
Wassan, whence the tribe of Wassings; as appears in various 
names in Kemble's Index, such as Wassan-burne (Washbourn), 
Wassan-dun, Wassan-hdm, Wassing-burg (Washingborough, 
Line), Wassinga-tun (Washington, Suss.), Wassing-welL The 
original sense was ' Wassa's brook ' ; whence the old spelling 
Wassebroc (Copinger). 

WiCKHAMBROOK. Compounded of Wickham and brook. 
Not connected, except by the accident of name, with Wickham 
Market (see pp. 63, 64), which is exactly to the east of it, but 
more than thirty miles away. The brook flows eastward into 
the Glen and so joins the Stour. 

9. By. 

This suffix is of much interest, as it is well known to be a 
sure indication of Danish occupation. We find that such 
occupation was after all, in this county, really very slight. 
There are but four examples, viz. Ashby, Barnaby (or Barnby), 
Risby, and Wilby. The two former are within a few miles of 
the east coast ; and Wilby is only some twenty miles from it. 
Risby, however, is far from the same, farther even than Bury. 
By is the modern Dan. by, Old Dan. byr, Icel. il/r (more 
commonly boer), a farmhouse, farm, or town ; allied to Dan. bo, 
Icel. bua, A.S. buan, to build. 


AsHBY. It is extremely unlikely that Ash should here be 
a true English word, as it would hardly combine with a true 
Norse suffix such as -hi/. It has been proved by Bjorkman 
that the English often accommodated Norse words to their 
own pronunciation; and it is to be noted that Copinger records, 
as old spellings of this name, not only Asheby, but Askehy, a 
spelling which frequently occurs in Ipm. We even find Ashby 
in Lines., where the old form is Askeby. The prefix Aske- 
represents the form Asha, gen. sing, of Aski, a Norse personal 
name. The real meaning is 'Aski's town.' 

Barnaby, Barnby; to the S.W. of Lowestoft. The same 
name as Barnby-on-Don, in the W. Riding, which is spelt 
Barnaby, Bai^nehy in Ipm. For the Suffolk Barnaby, D.B. has 
Barnebei, p. 5 ; Barne-by, p. 43. This is a clear indication, as 
Prof. Moorman points out, that the former element in the 
name is not from the A.S. Beorna, but from the Dan. personal 
name Barni (gen. Barna), a name recorded by Nielsen in his 
Old danske Personnavne. The sense is 'Barni's farm,' or 'Barni's 

RiSBY. At no great distance from Bury. Spelt Riseby, 
T.N. ; Ryseby, H.R.; Risby, Ipm. Kemble also has Riseby, 
in his Charter no. 984 ; but the spelling is very late, 
and of little value. D.B., p. 152, has Risebi. I explain the 
prefix as being like that in Risbridge (above), and suppose 
that it began with Hr. Moreover, it was probably Danish. 
Hence Rise- may have represented the Icel. Hrlsa, gen. of 
Hrlsi, which occurs as a nickname ; see Corpus Poeticum 
Boreale, ed. Vigfusson and Powell, vol. ii. p. 315, 1. 165 ; Sigur^r 
Hrisi Haraldz sonr\, i.e. SigurSr, nicknamed Hrisi, son of 
Harold. If this be right, the sense is 'Hrisi's farm' or'Hrlsi's 
town.' So also in Risbridge. 

Wilby. To the E.S.E. of Eye. Spelt Wileby, T.N.; 
W ilehegl I, l\tm..', Wilebey,^).^., p. 97. The D.B. form in -bey 
must be significant, since Dr Copinger cites, from other sources, 
such spellings as Wilbeghe, Wilebeigh, Wilbey, Wilbeye, 
Wilbeygh, Wilebegh, Wylebeg. 

At p. xxi of his Introduction to the W, Riding Place-names, 


Prof. Moorman has the following note on the termination -&?/. 
"This word existed in Old Danish in the form -hyr (Mod. Dan. 
hy), and though this form is not unknown in Old Xorse, the 
usual O.N. form is hor [or h<jer\ Phonology shows that O.N. 
hor would have become Mid. Eng. he, in just the same way 
that O.N, slogr, sly, became M.E. sUg." It thus becomes clear 
that, in this place-name, we have to do, not with the usual 
Dan. hy, but with the corresponding 0. Norwegian hor (Norw. 
ho in Aasen). This shows us that the settler in Wilby was not 
a Dane, but a Norwegian, 

We should expect the prefix Wil- to represent the gen. of a 
Norse name. Egilsson gives two examples of the name Vili, 
gen. Vila. The O.N. V was, in A.S. times, a W, when Vili 
would have been Wili. I therefore propose to explain Wilby 
as meaning 'Will's farm' or town. The final -a in the gen. 
Wila was easily lost, as in Ris-by (above). 

10. Camp. 

I have discussed this suffix in the Place-names of Cambs., 
showing that it represents A.S. camp, a field, not really an 
A.S. word, but borrowed from the L, campus. The Supple- 
ment to Bosworth and Toller now gives us four good examples. 

BULCAMP. A hamlet one mile N.W. of Blythburgh (Kelly). 
Spelt holecamp, H.R. ; Bidecampe, D.B,, p. 10.5. Copinger also 
cites Bidchamp (with French champ), and Bulfelda, where felda 
(field) translates camp. The D.B. prefix hide- represents the 
A.S. hidan, gen. of hula, a bull ; see hida in the Supplement to 
the A.S, Diet. The sense is ' bull's field.' Or, if Bula were 
used as a name, ' Bula's field,' 

11, Clay. 

This is the usual E. clay ; it occurs in Hinder-clay. 

HiNDERCLAY, The n in this form is comparatively modern ; 
all the old forms have I in place of it, and the form in D.B. is 
Hilderclea, p. 168. In a late copy of Ulfketel's bequest to the 
Abbey at Bury, it appears as Hildercle; see Birch, C.S., iii. 21 G, 
last line. It is not from the A.S. hild, battle (gen. Midi), as 


this will not account for the r; but from the O. Norse feminine 
personal name Hildr, of which the gen. was Hildar; see Bjork- 
man. Hence the literal sense is ' Hildr's clay,' with reference 
to a farm with a clay soil. Hildr (as said above) was the name 
of a woman. 

12. Dale. 

This is a well-known suffix, of obvious meaning; it only 
occurs in Botesdale and Withersdale. 

BoTESDALE. The spelling Botolvesdale occurs in H.R. ; 
Avhich explains it at once as representing ' B5twulf's dale.' 
Botwulf, mod. E. Botolph, is a well-known name, and is 
often shortened to Botulf and Botolf ; the spelling Botolph 
is of course absurd, though perfectly common. The spelling 
with is Norman ; they turned the A.S. wulf into tvolf, but 
they did not thereby affect the sound of it. 

Withersdale. To the N. of Fressingfield, and not far 
from the river Waveney. Spelt Wytherisdal in H.R. But 
Copinger also records the spellings Wetheresdale, Wethersdale, 
which are better. Wethei^es is the gen. case of the A.S. 
luetlier, a young ram. The sense is 'Wether's dale'; for 
Wether must have been a man's name, as the -es suggests. 

18. Dene. 

The suffix dene represents the A.S. denu, a valley. It is 
sometimes confused in old documents with -don, representing 
the A.S. dun, a down, and they cannot always be distinguished. 
But they are kept apart in Suffolk, if we include, as I believe 
we should, the name Hundon among the denes and Darmsden 
among the downs. I keep them separate. 

Dene or -den occurs in Depden, Elveden, Framsden, Fros- 
tenden, Hundon, Monewden, Owsden, Rattlesden, Wantisden, 
and Wetherden. 

Depden. To the S.W. of Bury. The old spellings are : 
Depeden, H.R., T.N.; Depedene, R.B.; Depdana, D.B., p. 236. 
Cf. Depeden (Essex), Ipm. And we find ' to deopan dsene,' 
Birch, C.S. ii. 135. The D.B. often denotes the A.S. denu, 


a dene or valley, by -dana. The sense is simply ' deep valley.' 
The long e has been shortened, by the stress, before the 
following pd. 

Elveden, or Elden (Kelly). To the S.W. of Thetford. 
Spelt Elveden, H.R.; T.N.; KB.; Elvedena, D.B., p. 156. From 

the A.S. ^Ifan denu, ' ^Elfa's valley ' ; where iElfa is a pet- 
name for a name beginning with ^Elf-, such as ^Elf-red or 
iElf-ric. An example of the name .^Ifa (ill-spelt ^Ififa) occurs 
in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 562, 1. 2, 

Framsden. To the S.E. of Debenham. Spelt Framesden, 
T.N.; Frainisden, H.R. ; Framesdena, D.B,, p, 36. From the 
A.S. Frames denu, lit. ' Fram's valley.' Searle instances a 
moneyer named Fram. It is simply the A.S. fram, valiant; 
an adj. well fitted to be used as an epithet. 

Frostenden. N. by W. from Southwold. Spelt Frosteden, 
Frostenden, T.N. Copinger also notes the forms Frosenden, 
Frossenden, as if the t had been inserted ; and when we com- 
pare these with the form Fi^oxedena, in D.B., p. 268, we may 
feel tolerably sure that such was really the case, and that the 
form in D.B. was the original one ; especially when we further 
compare it with the A.S. Froxafeld, which occurs in Birch, 
C.S., iii, 432, 1. 22, and is the modern Froxfield (Hants.). 
Froxa is the gen. pi. of frox, a frog ; and the sense is ' frogs' 
valley,' The form Frossenden may be compared with the A.S. 
variant froscan, for forscan, gen. sing. ; cf. Forscan-feld, Birch, 
C.S., i. 452. 

Hqndon. To the N.W. of Clare. The form is modern, 
and it was formerly Hunden. It appears as Hunden, Ipm. ; 
Huneden, H.R. ; Hunendana, D.B., p. 218. The A.S. prefix 
was Hunan, as in Hunan-bricg and Hunan-weg, both in 
Kemble's Index. Moreover, the ii was long; and several 
Hunas are recorded. The sense is ' H ana's valley,' which 
suits the position of the village. 

Monewden. Sometimes Monoden (Kirby). Five miles 
S.W. of Framlingham railway-station. Spelt Moneivedon, 
Ipm.; Mungeden, T.N. The w represents an older g] Cop- 
inger cites a spelling Monegedene, and we find Mmiegadena, 


D.B., p. 90; Mungadena, D.B., p. 135; Mungedena, D.B,, p. 184; 
Mangedena, D.B., p. 134. The suffix is the A.S. denu, a valley ; 
the oldest forms of the prefix arc, apparently, those in D.B., viz. 
Munega, Munga, Mimge, Manga. I find no A.S. forms which will 
account for these, and I do not know their origin. As a possible 
guess, I suggest that the prefix may have arisen from the 0. Norse 
fem, personal name Mundger'^r, fiom which, according to Rygh, 
the Scand. place-name Munge-rad is derived. If this should be 
right, the sense would be ' Mundgerthr's valley.' 

OwsDEN (Kelly), or Ousden. Near Lidgate, towards the 
western border of the county. Old spellings are : Ovesden, 
T.N. ; Ovisdene, Ipm. ; Ovesdene, R.B. ; Uvesden, H.R. ; and 
Vuesdana, for Uvesdana, D.B., p. 45. Kemble gives Ufesford 
as a place-name ; but, according to Birch, this is a misreading. 
He also gives Ufford as the old form of Ufford (Northants.), 
but this may be a contracted form ; see the account of the 
Suffolk Ufford below. Searle gives several examples of the 
personal name Ufa (of the weak declension, genitive Ufan) ; 
corresponding to which we might expect to find the form 
Ufe (of the strong declension, genitive Ufes). Similarly, cor- 
responding to the weak form Ofa (six examples), a strong form 
Ofe is known. Hence the form Ufe may safely be assumed ; 
so that the original sense of the place-name was ' Ufe's valley.' 

Rattlesden. To the W. of Stowmarket. Spelt Ratles- 
rfewe, H.R. ; R.B. ; Ratilisden, l^m.\ Ratlesden, T.N.; Ratlesdena, 
D.B., p. 165. Rattlesden is certainly referred to in a Charter 
of Edward the Confessor, printed in Kemble, CD., iv. 245, 
where we find : — " in comitatu Sudfolc, Hertest, Glemesford, 
Hecham, Rattesdene," &c. But the copy is not very well spelt, 
and we may suspect that the form intended was Ratlesdene, in 
conformity with all the other evidence. An A.S. *Ratles would 
imply a nom. *Ratel ; or, if we compare tlie A.S. hrcetel-wyrt, 
answering to our modern rattle-ivort, we might infer such a 
form as *Hr8etel. In any case, we may assume that the valley 
here discussed was named from a man whose personal designa- 
tion was *Ratel or *Hra3tel. There we must leave it, for want 
of evidence. 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 2 


Wantisden. Three miles to the S.E. of Wickham Market 
railway station (Kelly). Old spellings are: W a ntesden, 1pm.; 
Wantesdena, D.B., pp. 32, 207. Apparently the sense is 
' Want's valley.' The personal name Want is recorded in 
the Liber Vitse of Durham. 

Wetherden. To the N.W. of Stowmarket. Spelt Wether- 
done (error for Wetherdene, as other records show), Ipm. ; 
Wetherden, Weutherden, cited by Copinger ; Wederdena, D.B., 
p. 159, with d for th. A simple compound, moaning ' wether- 

14. Down. 

In names that end in -don, the suffix is the unstressed form 
of down, A.S. dtui, a hill. 

Examples occur in Balliugdon, Brandon, Claydou, Darmsden 
(for Darmsdon), Hawkedon, Raydon, Reydon, and Thorndon. 

Ballingdon. a hamlet near Sudbury. I find no old 
spellings. If the form is correct, it may mean ' dowai (or 
hill) of the BaBllings,' or of 'the sons (or family) of Bsell.' 
BaiU is recorded as a personal name. Cf. D.B., Balles-bi, i.e. 
Balby (Yorks.). 

Brandon, or Brandon Ferry (Kelly). Spelt Braundone, 
R.B.; Brandona, D.B., p. 202 ; Brandons (late), in Kemble, CD., 
iv. 245. I explain it from the 0. Norse Branda, gen. of Brandi, 
a weak form used beside the strong form Brandr (gen. Brands). 
See the account of Brandr in Rygh, who shows that Brandr was 
in very common use, and that Brandi also occurs in place-names. 
The sense is ' Brandi's down.' Brand- occurs also in English in 
compounds, such as Brand-wulf. The result is conjectural. 

Claydon. To the E. of the river Gipping. It occurs in 
D.B. as the name of a hundred, distinct from Bosmere ; but 
Bosmere and Claydon are now taken together as forming 
but one hundred. Spelt Cleydon, H.R. ; T.N. ; Ipm. But 
D.B. has Claindune or Claindone frequently, with Clain- as 
the former element, in which the n must be accounted for. 
It may easily represent the adjectival suffix -en; the form 
clayen, ' made of clay,' or ' clayey,' occurs in Wyclif 's translation 
of Job iv. 19 (N.E.D.). The sense is ' clayey down.' 


Darmsden. To the S.E. of Ncedham Market. The name 
originally ended in -don or -doun, representing the A.S. dii)), 
a down. Copinger gives Derniodesdon, Dormesdon ; but more 
important spellings are those in D.B. and Ipm. D.B. has 
Dermodesduna, pp. 28, 205 ; and Ipm. has the still fuller 
form Deorniondesdoiuie, p. 218 ; which explains it at once. 
Deormondes represents the A.S. Deormundes, gen. of Deormund 
(a known name) ; and the original sense was ' Deormund's 

Hawkedon. Nearly to the S.S.E. of Bury, in the direction 
of Clare. Old spellings are : ZTftit^o/^, T.N., Ipm. ; Haukedon, 
II.R. ; Hauochenduna, D.B., p. 136 (with che for ke)] Hauokedima, 
D.B., p. 232. At first sight, we might suppose that Hauochen- 
answers to the A.S. Heafecan, given as occurring in Heafecan- 
berh, in Kemble's Charters, nos. 291 and 292 ; but, according to 
Birch's revision of these charters, the name has here been mis- 
read, and appears in the charters in the forms Heasecan (thrice) 
and Heahsecan (once) ; proving that the supposed Heafecan has 
no real authority. The form in D.B. can hardly be correct, as the 
O. Merc, hafoc, A.S, Jieafoc, is a strong masculine (gen. hafoces, 
heafoces), no case of which can end in -an. It is therefore 
worth noting that Copinger also gives the old spellings Haukes- 
den and Haiukesden, though without a reference. Kemble has 
several forms beginning with Hafoces- (followed by hlww, ora, 
pyt, and tun), so that the D.B. form should rather have been 
Hauochesduna. That Hafoc was a man's name, with a gen. 
Hafoces, can be safely concluded from its frequent occurrence 
in place-names. We find Hawkesbury (Glouc.), Hawksdale 
(Cumb.), Hawksdown (Devon), Hawkshead (Lanes.), and 
Hawkesworth (Notts) ; besides Hauxton (Cambs.), which is 
merely a form of Hawkston. It is known that the genitival 
-s disappeared, occasionally, at rather an early date, in some 
place-names, whilst in others it has remained. The probable 
sense, in this case, is ' Hawk's down ' ; where Hawk (0. Merc. 
Hafoc) was a personal name. This can be proved by two 
considerations: (1) the occurrence of Hafeces hlTliu, i.e. 'Hawk's 
burial-mound,' in Birch, C.S., ii. 377, 1. 18; and (2) the fact 



that the Icel. haiikr, 'a hawk,' was a common personal name 


Raydon and Raydon St Mary are to the S.E. of Hadleigh ; 
Reydon lies to the N.W. of Southwold, far from the others. 
Both were formerly spelt with ei or ey ; so that we may select 
Reydon as being the better form. Old spellings are : Reydon, 
Ipm.; Reidiine, H.R.; Reydon, T.l^.', but D.B. has Reinduna, 
p. 194. Rey is an occasional form of E. rye, A.S. ryge; and 
the D.B. form rein represents the A.S. adj. rygen, belonging to 
or abounding in rye. We actually find the A.S. form of 
Reydon in iElfflsed's Will, in which it is spelt Rigindun (for 
Rygendun) ; see Birch, C.S., iii. 603, 1. 29. Hence the sense 
is ' down abounding in rye,' or ' rye-down.' For the form rey, 
see the N.E.D., s.v. rye. 

Thorndon. To the S. of Eye. Spelt Thornedon, R.B. ; 
answering to the A.S. Thorndun, of which Kemble has four 
examples. The sense is obviously ' thorn down.' 

15. Edish, or Eddish. 

The prov. E. eddish (also written edish) is in general dia- 
lectical use, with the sense of ' aftermath,' or second crop of 
grass or clover; the A.S. form being edisc. It is the origin 
of the modern -dish in Brundish and Cavendish. 

Brundish. Nearly to the N. of Framlingham. Ipm. 
mentions a Burnedishe in Staffs. Copinger gives a number 
of spellings, among which are Bornedisce, Burnedich(e), Burne- 
dish, and Burnedissh(e) ; all of which would result from an 
A.S. *burn-edisc. I have no doubt that it means 'bourn- 
eddish,' i.e. a meadow beside a bourne or stream that was 
mown for aftermath. 

Cavendish. Nearly to the E. of Clare. Spelt Kavanedis, 
Cavendish, Ipm.; Cauenedis, T.N.; Cavenedys, H.R.; Kauanadis, 
D.B., p. 335. The prefix is the same as in Cavenham (below), 
and represents Cafan, the gen. case of the personal name Cafa. 
The sense is ' Cafa's eddish,' or ' Cafa's meadow for aftermath.' 


16. Ey. 

This very common suffix represents the Anglian eg, A.S. lec) 
Ig, an island. It meant not only ' island ' in the modern sense, 
but peninsula, or any piece of land wholly or partially sur- 
rounded by brooks or marshy country. In D.B. and Latin 
documents it is often expressed by eia. It occurs alone in Eye, 
and in composition in Bawdsey, Bungay, Campsey Ashe, Kirsey, 
and Lindsey. 

Eye. It is situate, says Kelly, " at the confluence of two 
rivulets, in a low situation." One of these streams is the river 
Dove. Note the spellings Eye, Eya, H.R., T.N.; Eya, Eie, Eye, 
la Eye, R.B.; Eiam (ace. case), D.B., p. 78. The final e is due 
to the use of the dative case, the prep, cet (at) being understood, 
as usual. Thus, in the A.S. Chronicle, an. 855, we find "on 
Sceap-ige," i.e. in Sheppey. For the A.S. Ig, the Anglian, Old 
Mercian, and Old Norse form was eg, which accounts for the 
former e. The A.S. Ig is connected with ea, a stream ; the two 
forms are often ignorantly confused. 

Bawdsey. The name perhaps belonged originally to Bawd- 
sey Manor, which is at some distance from the present village, 
and near Bawdsey Point. The reference is to its situation in 
the peninsula between the river Deben and the sea, which 
terminates in Bawdsey Point. Old spellings are : Baudeseye, 
Ipm. ; Balders, H.R. ; Baldeseia, D.B., p. 73. But Copinger 
gives other spellings, such as Balderescia (with c for e), Bal- 
dreseia, Baudersey, Baudreseye, Baudrissey ; which clearly show 
that the fuller form was Baldereseye ; and Baldet-es- of course 
represents the O. Merc. Baldheres, gen. of Baldhere, the Mercian 
form of the A.S. Bealdhere, a known name. The sense is 
' Baldhere's island.' 

Bungay. The situation is remarkable, as the river Waveney 
is here extremely deflected, and forms a horse-shoe bend round 
the peninsula lying to the N.W. It is therefore on an eye, in 
the old sense of that word. The old spellings are, accordingly, 
Bungeye, H.R.; Bungeia, R.B.; Bongeia, D.B., p. 15; Buugheum 
(ace. case), D.B., p. 39. The prefix Bung- is of Norse origin ; 


from the Icel. hungi, a convexity, elevation ; Norweg. hiaiga, 
a little heap ; closely allied to the Dan. bunke, a heap, a pile, 
and connected with the E, bunch. The original sense of the 
word, according to Falk and Torp's Dan. Etym. Diet., Avas 
' rounded elevation.' The sense is ' rounded elevation on a 
peninsula'; just as the old name of Durham was Diin-holm, 
i.e. ' down-island,' or ' hill-island.' It may be added that I 
have already given this explanation in my Place-names of 
Cambridge, where the pronunciation of ng as ngg is exem- 
plified, as in Gamling-ay. 

A favourite derivation of this name was, once upon a time, 
the F. bon gue, or ' good ford ' (if there ^vas one). Of course 
philology forbids the derivation of forms that occur in Domes- 
day Book from modern French ; and it is well to remember 
that the Norman for ' ford ' was guet or wet, and that the 
Norman did not pronounce gu like the gu in the F. gue, but 
like the gu in anguish. The author of this egregious fable 
has not told us liow to obtain the sound of gay from that of 

Campsea Ashe, or Ashe by Campsea (Kelly). We need 
not trouble about Ashe, which refers to the familiar tree-name. 
The place lies between Saxmundham and Woodbridge, and 
there are several Ashes in the neighbourhood, viz. Ash Corner 
to the W. ; the remains of Mill Ash Abbey to the S.S.W. ; and 
Ash Green and Ash High House to the S.E. The name is 
spelt Campsey Ash in the Ordnance Map. D.B. has Camjjes 
ea, p. 26 ; some other old spellings are quoted by Copinger, viz. 
Ashe juxta Campessey, Ayssh juxta Camsey, Campeseia, Gamp- 
essey. The suffix appears to be -ey, island. As to the prefix, 
I am uncertain; but Rygh gives a Norse personal name Kampi, 
as appearing in some place-names, which may have become 
Camp in English ; whence ' Camp's island.' 

Kersey. To the N.W. of Hadleigh. I have already dis- 
cussed this name in a paper for the Philological Society, printed 
in the Transactions for 1907-10, at p. 258. I there show, in 
opposition to the statement in the N.E.D. as to there being no 
known connexion between Kersey and Kersej' cloth, that the 


Suffolk cloth-making is expressly mentioned in Hall's Chronicle, 
under the date 1526. Indeed, the poet Skelton, in his piece 
entitled " Why Come ye nat to Courte," refers to the " cloth- 
making" of Sprynge of Laniiam, 11. 930 — 2. Dyce, in his note, 
strangely explains " Lanam " as " Langham in Essex," whereas 
it is the usual pronunciation of the Suffolk Lavenham, and 
" the coats of arms of the Springs, wealthy clothiers in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and great benefactors of 
the church" can still be seen in Lavenham Church; see 
Bygone Suffolk, p. 76. This proves the point as to the 
naming of Kersey cloth from Kersey in Suffolk ; especially 
when taken in conjunction with my note upon Lindsey (below). 
The old spellings are : Kerseye, H.R. ; Kareshey (error for 
Karesey), Ipm. ; Kereseye, in 1279 (see Bardsley); Careseia, 
D.B., p. 217. All from the A.S. Gceres-lg, of which the gen. 
case Gwres-ige occurs in Birch, C.S,, iii. 608, 1. 3 from the 
bottom. Here Cceres is the gen. of Ccer, the same name as 
the Gar mentioned in Searle. Hence Kersey means " Cser's 
island " or " Car's island." This name of Car looks like Celtic. 
Kersey cloth was known in 1376 (Victoria Hist, of Suffolk) ; 
and Kersey Priory is as old as 1158. 

Lindsey. Not far from Kersey, and associated with it in 
the old days of the cloth manufacture in Suffolk. But the old 
name was Lellesey or Lillesey, even as late as the sixteenth 
century. Old spellings are: Lelleseye, Ipm. (a.d. 1263); and 
Copinger gives Lelessey, Lellesey, Lelsey, as well as Lillesey, 
Lyllesey. Ipm. also has a Lylleseye in Sussex (perhaps an 
error for Suffolk). However, the authentic A.S. form was 
rather Lill than Lell ; Kemble's index has Lilies beam, ' Lill's 
tree,' as well as Lilies ham, or ' Lill's home.' Moreover, the 
related weak form Lilla also appears in the same, as in Lillan- 
hrycg, ' Lilla's ridge,' and Lillanwelle, ' Lilla's well.' We may 
therefore well suppose that the original name meant ' Lill's 
island.' The subsequent change to Lindsey may have been 
due to confusion with that name, which was better known. 
A large portion of Lincolnshire was called Lindsey, which 
appears even in modern maps. I have already shown, in 


my paper on Kersey, that the material called Linsey-wolsey 
certainly took its name from the Suffolk town ; for otherwise 
it could never have had the name of Lylse wulse in the time 
of Skelton, who, in his poem entitled "Why Come ye nat to 
Courte," at 1. 128, has the expression : " To weve al in one lome 
[loom] A webbe of lylse-iuulse " ; with a punning reference to 
his enemy, the cardinal, who was one of the most celebrated 
men that Suffolk has ever produced. (The spelling Lynsey 
occurs in V.E,) 

17. Field. 

This is a well-known suffix in place-names, and appears in 
Ashfield, Bedfield, Bedingfield, Bradfield, Bramfield, Bredfield, 
Charsfield, Cockfield, Cratfield, Crowlield, Fressingfield, Homers- 
field, Huntingfield, Laxfield, Metfield, Mickfield, Pakefield, 
Redlingfield, Ringsfield, Shadingfield, Stanningfield, Stansfield, 
Sternfield, Waldingfield, Waldringfield, Wattisfield, Westerfield, 
Whatfield, Wingfield, and Withersfield ; i.e. just thirty times. 

Ashfield. There is an Ashfield Magna to the K of 
Elmswell, and another Ashfield nearly to the E. of Debenham. 
The meaning is obvious, but the Norman scribes had much 
ado to spell it, as there was no sh in Norman at all. Hence 
we find in D.B., at p. 193, the form Asfelda, at p. 29, Asse- 
felda, and at p. 173, Eascefelda. And they sometimes spelt Ash 
as Esse. 

Bedfield. Nearly to the N.E. of Debenham, and to the 
N.W. of Framlingham. 

Old spellings are scarce ; but Copinger gives the form 
Bedefeld, which is quite satisfactory. Here the prefix Bede- 
represents the A.S. Bedan, the gen. case of Beda, which is a 
famous name. The sense of Bedfield is 'Beda's field,' just as 
that of Bedford is 'Beda's ford.' The name must have been 
common ; and no doubt the men who gave their names to 
Bedfield and to Bedford were not the same; and the 'venerable 
Bede' was a third. The last mentioned lived at an early date, 
when the name was spelt Bieda. 

OF \ 

i UNI';"- 


- .i- I i^:.■■ 

Bedingfield. To the S.E. of Eye. Spelt Bediiu/feld in 
Ipm. ; D.B. has Badingafelda, p. 59, and Bedingafelda, p. 276. 
The correct A.S. form would be Bedinga feld, i.e. ' the field of 
the Bedings' or 'of the sons of Beda.' Beding is the regular 
patronymic form from that source. 

Bradfield. Kelly has a Bradfield St Clare aud a Bradfield 
St George ; as well as Bradfield Combust or Brent (i.e. burnt) 
Bradfield, so called because its old hall was burnt in 1327. 
The old spellings are Bradefel, T.N, ; Bradefeld, H.R. ; and 
Bradefella,T>.^., p. 21. Bradfield (Sussex) appears as Bradan- 
feld in several A.S. charters ; see Kemble's index. Here 
hrddan is the weak dat. of the A.S. hrdd, broad ; and the sense 
is 'broad field.' The long a is shortened by the stress, before 
the df. 

Bramfield. To the S. of Halesworth. Spelt Bramfeld 
H.R. ; but Brunfelda in D.B., p. 24, under the account of 
Walepola (Walpole). Copinger also notes such spellings as 
Bromfield and Brumfield, which are of some help, and show 
that it is quite different in origin from Bramfield, Herts., which 
seems to have meant ' Branda's field.' See further under 

Bredfield. To the N. of Woodbridge. Spelt Bredfelde, 
Bredefeld, Ipm.; Bredefelda, D.B., p. 75. This is a highly 
interesting example, as it introduces a Frisian form. The prefix 
is not the A.S. hrdd, broad, as in Bradfield, but the 0. Frisian 
hred, or breed, with the same sense. That is, the sense is ' broad 
field,' as in the former case, but there is a difference of dialect. 

Charsfield. To the W. of Wickham Market. Spelt 
Charsfeld, Ipm. ; Ceresfella, D.B., p. 26 ; Cerresfella, D.B., 
p. 186. D.B. has Ce for E. Che, and usually turns the A.S. 
feld (field) into fella. In the Crawford Charters, ed. Napier 
and Stevenson, p. 33, 1. 28, we find the spelling Caresfeld; a 
form difficult to account for. The D.B. form Cerres may be 
right. If so, the sense is ' Cerr's field,' the A.S. Cerr becoming 
E. Char, as in Cert, the A.S. form of Chart (Kent). The A.S. 
Cerr is suggested by the form Cerringes, the A.S. spelling of 


Charing (Kent); see Birch, C.S. i. 411; cf. also p. 410, I. 25. 
Cerring is the patronymic form of Cerr, so that there is 
evidence for the name. 

CocKFiELD. The railway station is on the line from Bury 
to Lavenham. Spelt Cocfelde, Cokefelde, RB. ; Cokefeld, H.R. 
Oddly spelt Cochanfelde in Bircli, C.S. iii. 603, 1. 1 ; also 
Cokefelde in a late hand, in the same, p. 604, 1. 2. Compare 
Coccan-hiirh in Kemble's index. The sense appears to be 
'Cocca's field.' 

Cratfield. Nearly to the E.S.E. of Halesworth, beyond 
Cookley. Spelt Cratfeld, Ipm. ; Cratefeld,T.'^.; Ipm.; Crata- 
felda, D.B., p. 269. The prefix does not appear to be English, 
but rather Dan. krat, a thicket, a copse ; Mid. Dan. krat, a 
thorn-bush ; Swed. dial, kratt, the same. The sense would be 
'field covered with brambles.' 

Ckowfield. To the N.E. of Needham Market. The name 
has been modified, and its original sense was other than it 
seems to be. Spelt Groffeud (for Crojfeld), Ipm., p. 55 ; 
Crofelda, D.B., p. 187. Copinger also records the forms 
Groffeld and Croftfield. All of these suggest an A.S. form 
croft-feld, with the sense of 'croft-field'; i.e. a small enclosure. 

Fressingfield. Otherwise Fresingfield (Kirby). Spelt 
Fresing-feld, H.R..; Fresing-feud (for -feld), Ipm., p. 161a; 
Fresen-feld, Ipm., p. 1616. Copinger also reports the forms 
Fr^esi/ngefeld, Fresyngfeld, and the like. But the A.S. form is 
rightly Fresena feld, i.e. 'field of the Frisians,' in agreement 
with the form Fresenfeld. Here Fresena is the gen. pi. of 
Fresa, a Frisian. This is a very interesting result ; note that 
there is a similar allusion in the names Freston and Friston. 

HOMERSFIELD. Kelly has " Homersfield, or St Mary 
South Elmham." Spelt Humersfeld, R.B.; Humeresfeld, R.B. ; 
Humhresfelda, D.B., p. 197. In the last form the h is probably 
intrusive, as it does nut appear in the modern form. Humeres- 
of course represents the gen. case of a masc. personal name, 
which can hardly have been other than *Hiinmger. For, 


though this name is not on record, Hiin- (never Hum-) is a 
common prefix in such names, and -m.Tn-, as in ^If-mser, 
^thel-mier, is a common suffix. I explain this name as 
' HunmlBr's field.' 

HUNTINGFIELD. Near Heveningham, to the S.W. of 
Halesworth. Spelt Huntingefeld, R.B., Ipm. ; Huntyngfeld, 
H.R.; Huntingafelda, D.B., p. Gl, representing an A.S. Huntinga- 
feld, i.e. 'field of the Huntings.' Hunting is a tribal name, 
from the personal name Hunta, our modern Hunt. It does 
not refer to A.S. huntung, a hunting. 

Laxfield. To the W.S.W. of Halesworth. Spelt Lax/eld, 
H.R.; Laxafella, D.B., p. 26; Laxafelda, D.B., p. 27. Cf. 
LcBxa-dyne, Birch, C.S. iii. 602, 1. 9 ; and Leaxan oc, in the 
same, ii. 510 (in a late copy of a charter). It hence appears 
that Laxfield represents an A.S. form Leaxan feld; where 
Lwxan is the gen. case of Lwxa, a personal name. This name 
is quite un-English, and is obviously founded upon the 
extremely common Norse word lax, ' a salmon.' It was 
probably a mere epithet, though the original sense may have 
been 'salmon-er,' i.e. a fisher for sahnon. The final -a is often 
agential in Old English. 

The D.B. form Laxin-ton (for A.S. La3xan-tun) occurs in 
the D.B. for Yorkshire. And there are Laxtons in Northants. 
and Notts. 

Metfield. To the S.E. of Mendham, which is on the 
Waveney. I find no old spellings ; but Copinger records 
Metefeld and Medefeld. The latter is obviously the older form, 
and shows that the old sense was simply ' mead-field,' or 
'meadow-field'; i.e. a field for mowing. 

MiCKFiELD. Near Debenham, westwards. Spelt Mikele- 
feld, T.N. ; Mikelfeld, Ipm. ; Mucelfelda, D.B., p. 273. Obviously 
' mickle field,' i.e. large field. 

The A.S. formula on miclan feld occurs in Birch, iii. 342 
(no. 1109), which accounts for the hard k (ck); its preservation 
is due to the contraction of micelan to miclan in, the dative 
case. Cf. Micklefield in the West Riding. 


Pakefield. To the S. of Lowestoft. Spelt Paggafella, 
D.B., p. 5 ; with gg (hard g) for h ; but Copinger records the 
forms Pake/eld and Pakelefeld. The prefix Pake- is short for 
Paken-, as in Pakenham, which see, Pakele- seems to be a 
diminutive, as if for Pakelen, for an A.S. * Pacela, a weak form 
allied to the A.S. Pacel, as seen in Pacles-ham (Kemble). 
I explain Pakefield as representing 'Paca's field,' with the same 
prefix as in Pakenham. 

Redlingfield. To the N. of Debenham. Spelt Ridlingfeld, 
Ipm.; better with e, as in Pedelingf eld, Redely ngf eld (Copinger); 
Radinghefelda, D.B., p. 79. In the last form, the ghe is for 
A.S. ga, and an I or el has been omitted; so that it points 
back to an A.S. Rcedelinga feld or Rddlinga feld. The name 
of Rcedel is on record ; hence we may explain it as ' the field 
of the P^delings,' or Rc'edlings ; or ' the field of the sons (or 
tribe) of Rtedel.' 

It is not impossible that contraction has taken place, and 
that the original form was Riedwulfinga feld, or 'the field of 
the R^dwulfings.' 

Ringsfield. To the S. of Beccles. D.B. has Ringesfella, 
p. 4. The prefix Hring- occurs in several A.S. names, though 
not found alone. But we may take it to be Norse. Rygh 
says that the Norse Ringr, originally Hringr, was a personal 
name, and is preserved in a large number of place-names. 
I explain this as ' Hring's field,' where Hring represents O.N. 
Hringr, so that it is really ' Hringr's field.' The final -r is 
merely the suffix of the nom. case, and answers to the -us in 
L. Marc-US. The prefix Rings- occurs also in Ringshall. 

Shadingfield. Spelt Shaddingfield by Kirby. Between 
Beccles and Blythburgh. The g is modern, and a better 
spelling would be Shadenfield. Spelt Shadenfeld, H.R. ; 
Shadnefeud, Ipm.; Scadenafella, D.B., p. 16. Here the -ena 
is the mark of the gen. pi. of a weak noun, and the nom. sing, 
would be *scada, or A.S. *sceada. This exact form is not 
found ; but it evidently resulted from the form sceatha, by the 
substitution of Norman d for the voiced tli; the gen. pi. was 


sceathena. Though sceatha is literally ' one who does scathe 
or damage,' it is a fairly common word for robber or thief; 
and the sense is ' field of thieves.' It might even mean ' field 
of pirates,' as the compound wicing- sceatha was used in that 
particular sense. How the field acquired its name, we have 
no means of knowing, though it would probably be an inte- 
resting story, if it could be recovered. As the a was originally 
short, the spelling Shaddingfield can be justified. 

Stanningfield. To the S. of Bury. Spelt Stanefeld, 
H.R., Ipm. ; Stanfella, D.B., p. 21. It is clear that the -ing 
is comparatively modern. The original was probably stdnen 
feld, i.e. 'stony field.' The usual adj. is stamen (with a?), but 
stdnen also occurs ; as in the dat. stdnenan bricge ; Birch, C.S. 
iii. 113, 1. 24. 

Stansfield. To the N. of Clare, at some distance. Spelt 
Stanesfeld, H.R. ; Ipm.; Stanefeld, R.B. ; Stanesfelda, D.B., 
p. 182. Stdnes is the gen. case of Stan, which is here a man's 
name,, as in Stansfield in the W. Riding. The sense is ' Stan's 
field.' Stone is now used as a surname. 

Sternfield. Near Saxmundham. Spelt Sternfeld, Ipm. ; 
Sternefella, D.B., p. 72. But an es has been lost, in a difficult 
position between rn and /; hence we also find Sternesfella, 
D.B., p. 71 ; Sternesfelda, D.B., pp. 33, 128. The apparent 
meaning is 'Stern's field.' This personal name is not otherwise 
recorded; but cf. A.S. styrne, E. stern, adj. 'severe.' 

Waldingfield. Spelt TfaWi/i^e/e/c?, H.R.; Ipm.; Waldinge- 
felda, D.B. ; p. 159. A.S. Wealdingafeld; Birch, C.S. iii. 603; 
O. Merc. Waldingafeld. Meaning : ' field of the Waldings,' or 
' of the sons of Walda.' 

Waldringfield. Spelt Wandringfeld, misprint for Waud- 
ringfeld (with u for I), Ipm. ; Waldringafelda, D.B., pp. 69, 
178. Meaning: 'field of the Wald(he)rings,' or 'sons of 
Waldhere.' Waldhere is a known name. 

Wattisfield. Spelt Watesfelda, D.B., pp. 37, 100 ; but 
Watlesfelda, D,B,, p. 170. Copinger also gives Watlesfeld, 


Watelesfeld, Wattelesfeld. A.S. form * Wcetles feld, where 
Waetles is the gen. of *Wa3tel, the strong form allied to 
Wffitela, whence Wretling and Wsetlinga stn'et or Watling 
Street. Sense : ' the field of Waetel.' Though Wsetel is not 
precisely recorded, it is a correct form, and is also the obvious 
origin of Wateles-tone in Ipm. p. 113. 

Westerfield. Spelt Westerfeld, Ipm., p. 97 ; Westrefelda, 
D.B., pp. 28, 29. Meaning: 'field more to the west'; cf. 
Icel. vestari, vestri, more to the west. It is more to the west 
than Bealings to any one coming from Woodbridge and the 
river Deben. 

Whatfield. Spelt Whatefeldjpm.; Quatefeld,U.U{\\ithqu 
for tvh); Gawatfelda, D.B., p. 23. A.S. form Hwaite-feld; 
meaning 'wheat-field.' Though A.S. has not this precise com- 
pound on record, we find hwwteland, 'wheat-land,' and feld as a 
suffix. Whatfield was sometimes called Wheatfield (see The 
Beauties of England). " This Town is chiefly remarkable for 
growing the most excellent Seed-Wheat"; Kirby. 

WiXGFiELD. Spelt ■ Wyngefeld, H.R. ; also Wingefeld in 
Thurkytel's will, in Thorpe, Diplomat, p. 580; a rather late 
document. Winge represents an earlier Wingan, as in 
Wingan-hdm, in Kemble's index; from the nom. Winga. 
Meaning: ' Winga's field.' (Distinct from Wingfield, Beds., 
which was originally Winanfeld, i.e. 'Wina's field.') 

WiTHERSFiELD. Spelt Wetheresfeld, Ipm., T.N.; Wytheres- 
feld, H.R.; Wedresfelda, D.B., p. 233 (with d for th). Literally 
'wether's field'; cf. WiTHERSDALE (above). It is probable., 
that Wether was a personal name. 

18. Fleet. 

Fleet, A.S. fleot, not only means an estuary or shallow 
channel, but also a shallow stream, or even a drain or ditch; 
see the E.D.D. It only occurs in Herringfleet. 

Herringfleet. As Herringfleet is some four miles inland, 
it has notliing to do with herrings, though herring is a very 


familiar word in that district. How old the prefix Herring 
may be in this case, I do not exactly know ; but in the four- 
teenth century, at any rate, the form was Herling. Old 
spellings are: Heiiingflet, Ipm. p. 223 (as late as 130(i); H.R.; 
Herlingafiet, D.B., p. 8. We find Herlinga-lidm in Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 563, a.d. 1046. The sense is: 'fleet (or shallow 
stream) of the Herlings,' or 'of the sons of Herla.' Herie 
occurs in A.S. as a prefix in several personal names. 

19. Ford. 

This well-known suffix occurs in Battisford, Blythford, 
Boxford, Bramford, Brockford, Carlford, Chillesford, Cosford, 
Cransford, Culford, Glemsford, Kentford, Lackford, Marlesford, 
Melford, Mutford, Orford, Playford, Poslingford, Samford, 
Stratford, Thetford (mostly in Norfolk), Ufford, Wangford, 
Wilford, and Yoxford. 

Fords were once notable places, and it is remarkable how 
many of them gave names to the hundreds into which the 
county was divided ; as will be noted below. 

Battlsford. Old spellings; Batesford, T.N.; Batisforde, 
Ipm., p. 2.58 ; Battisforde, Ipm., p. 48 ; Betesfort, D.B., 
p. 259. If we could depend upon the first vowel in the last 
form, this would be the same name as Bettesford, which occurs 
in Birch, C.S. iii. 585, 1. 13. But it is better to assume a form 
Battesford, which would mean ' Batt's ford.' The name Batt 
has not been hitherto noted, but the allied weak form Bata 
occurs in Batancumb, in Kemble's index. Cf. Batsford, Glouc. 

Blythford or Blyford. Spelt Blideforda, D.B., p. 150. 
The usual modern Blyford is due to a Norman pronunciation, 
and is of rather early date. Compare Blyford in Ipm. ; which 
probably refers to Blythford, though said to be in Norfolk. 
The sense is, of course, ' ford through the river Blithe.' In the 
Will of Eadvvine, dated 1060, but extant in a late and ill-spelt 
copy, occurs the strange form Blitleford, which is probably an 
error for Blitheford ; see Thorpe, Diplomat, p. 590, I. 15. 


BoxFORD. Spelt Boxford, H.R.; Ipm. The sense is 'ford 
near the box-tree,' Fords are often named from trees that 
serve to mark the spot. Compare Boxford in Berks. The 
river Box is named from Boxford. 

Bramford. Spelt Bramford, Ipm. ; Brunfort, D.B., p. 2 ; 
Branfort, D.B., p. 17 (both incorrect forms). Copinger also 
gives the spellings Braiunforde and Bromford. 

Bram probably represents the prov. E. brame, a blackberry, 
though the name has not been recorded earlier than 1425 
(see N.E.D. or E.D.D.); but the dimin. hrmmel occurs in A.S., 
and is now the bramble. I suppose that the name meant 'ford 
near the bramble.' Our bramble is etymologically connected 
with broom, which may account for the spelling Bromford 
(above) just as Bromfield means 'broom field.' 

Brockford. Spelt Brocford, H.R.; T.N. ; Brock/art, D.B., 
p. 161. The sense is 'brook-ford' or 'ford through the brook.' 
The long o in the A.S. broc, a brook, is shortened in the 
stressed syllable before cf. Compare Bromfield for 'broom-field.' 

Carlford. The name of a hundred. Spelt Carlesford, 
H.R. ; but Carleford in D.B., p. 4. Carleford represents the 
A.S. cai^la ford, where carla is the gen. pi. of carl, a churl, a 
rustic, not an English word, but borrowed from the Norse karl, 
a churl, a peasant. Carlesford is an alternative form, from the 
gen. sing, carles. The sense is 'churls' ford' or 'churl's ford'; 
where churl means a rustic, a peasant. 

Chillesford. Formerly CAese(/brc^, H.R. ; Gesefortda,T)3., 
p. 32 (with inserted t and lost I). Copinger also gives the 
forms Chesilford, Chesi/lford, Clujselford. All from the A.S. 
ceosel, cisel, M.E. chisel, gravel ; showing that Chilles is a mere 
perversion of Chisel, as in Chiselhurst (Kent). The sense is 
'gravel-ford' or 'gravelly ford.' 

CoSFORD. The name of a hundred. Formerly Corsford, 
H.R.; Corsforth, Ipm.; Cursforde, D.B., p. 176. Cors was a 
river-name, also spelt Corsa. Kemble's index has Cors-broc, 
' Gors-brook' ; Gorsa-burne, ' Corsa-bourne' ; Corsan-stream, 


' Corsa's stream,' which was also simply called Cursa. Hence 
also Corsan-tun, or 'town on the Corsa'; see Birch, C.S. ii. 
498. The sense is ' ford thronorh the Cors.' The meaning of 
Cors is unknown ; it looks like the Welsh cois, a fen ; cf. 
cor sen, a reed. 

Cransford. Spelt Cranesford,l^m.\ but CVane/orc?«, D.B., 
p. 35. The sense is ' crane's ford.' Cf Cranford (crane ford), 
Middlesex, and such names as Ox-ford, Swin-ford, Hors-ford. 
When an animal's name is prefixed to a ford, it roughly 
indicates the depth. 

CuLFORD. Spelt Guleforda, D.B., p. 167 ; Culeforde (dative) 
in Birch, C.S. iii. 219, in a late A.S. charter. We can hardly 
dissociate this name from the curious form Gulum-ford, which 
occurs in Birch, C.S. ii. 432 ; which must be further compared 
with the expression seven lines below, viz. "on tha lace adun 
on culum ; up of cidum on tha ealdan lace." Middendorf (in 
his Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch, Halle, 1902, p. 33) explains 
cule as a weak fem., meaning 'a hole, depression, pit,' like the 
E. Fries, kide, Du. kiiil. If this be right, Cideforde represents 
an earlier A.S. Culanforda, dat., meaning ' ford near the hole, 
or pit, or hollow.' And the above passage means : "along the 
stream down into the pits; up out of the pits to the old 
stream." Culum is the dat. pi. 

Glemsford. Spelt Glemesford, H.R.; and in Kemble, Cod. 
Dipl. iv. 245. Also Clamesford (with G for G), ]).B., p. 203. 
Apparently, for A.S. *Gl£emesford, or 'ford of GlsOm.' But no 
such personal name is on record. See Glemham. 

Kentford. Spelt Kenteford, H.R.; Kentford, Ipm., p. 314. 
Short for Kennetford; 'ford through the river Kennet.' Kennet 
is a known river-name; known to be of Celtic origin; spelt 
Cyneta in A.S.; from a Celtic type "Cunetio. Cf. Kintbury 
in Berks. 

Lackford. To the N.W. of Bury. "Lackford, the f.rd 
over the Lark, just where that parish [i.e. Lackford] joins 
Icklingham All Saints"; Raven's Suffolk; p. 64. Lackford 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 3 


is also the name of a hundred ; and it is remarkable that this 
hundred took its name from the place, as the latter is really 
in Thingoe hundred, and just outside Lackford hundred 
itself. Spelt Lakford, H.R.; Lacforda, D.B., p. 45. From the 
A.S. lam, a running stream. [This word is often confused 
with the L. lacus, but the A.S. word cognate with lacus (and 
not borrowed from it) is lagu. ; and the E. lake is merely- 
borrowed from the F. lac] But the native word lacu is still 
extant in the prov. E. lake, explained in the E.D.D. as meaning 
'a brook, rivulet, or stream,' very common in S.W. dialects. 
There is, in fact, no lake at Lackford, but there is a stream. 
The name means 'stream-ford,' or 'ford through the stream.' 
The modern name of the stream is the Lark ; and it is much 
to be suspected that this singular name arose from the M.E. 
lake (from lacu), in which the a was pronounced as in father 
and in lark (if the r be suppressed). Another name for the 
Lark is (or was) the Burn, which means bourn or stream, and 
merely translates the A.S. lacu. I further suspect that the 
Linnet, which flows into the Lark at Bury, received its name 
from playful association with that of the larger river. Both 
names are comic. 

Marlesford. Near Wickham Market. Spelt Marleford, 
Ipm.; Marlesforda, D.B., p. 11; Merlesford, D.B., pp. 12, 27. 
The sense is ' Maerl's ford ' or ' Masrle's fond.' The name Mserl 
(or Mgerle) may safely be said to be of Norse origin, as it is 
recorded in the compound Mserle-swegen, of which Searle gives 
four examples ; and see Mserleswegen in Bjorkman. The 
suffix swegen is certainly Norse, as it is an A.S. spelling of 
O. Norse sveinn (E. swain). 

Melford, often Long Melford. Spelt Meleford, H.R. ; 
Ipm. ; Melaforda, D.B., p. 157. There are several Milfords in 
other counties; but connexion with these is doubtful, as 'mill' 
would hardly appear as Mela in D.B. The prefixes Mela-, 
Mele- rather suggest connexion with the A.S. Mcelan, gen. of 
Mcela, as in Mcelan heorh, in Birch, C.S. ii. 291, 1. 3. If this 
be right, the sense is ' Masla's ford ' ; but it is only a guess. 


The Mel- in Melton and Mellis appears to be quite distinct 
from that in Melford. 

MuTFORD. This is the name of a hundred as well as of a 
village. Spelt Mutford, Mutteford, H.R. ; Mutford and Mntfonla, 
D.B., p. 5; but Muthford in Ipm., p. 2G (a.d. 1263), which is an 
important variant, and may be taken to represent an older form. 
It is not easy to find the ford referred to, but I think it must 
be near Mutford Hall, where a stream flows into the Hundred 
River, if I rightly understand the ordnance map. The name 
may signify as much, if we connect it with the A.S. niutha, 
the mouth of a river, the place where one river meets another. 
If this be right, the sense is ' ford near the junction of the 
streams.' A similar explanation is given of Mitton in Worcester- 
shire ; viz. from the A.S. variant mythe, with the same sense. 
And the compound mythford is found in Birch, C.S. ii. 481, 
1. 21. 

Orford. This also is the name of a former hundred, 
though no longer in use for that purpose. The place is on 
the N.W. bank of the river Aide. Formerly Oreford, H.R., 
T.N., Ipm. From the A.S. ora, a border, edge, bank; meaning 
'ford at the bank or shore.' Perhaps it was where the ordnance 
map marks the Quay and the Ferry. On one side of the Aide 
is the mainland ; on the other, the King's Marshes. I find, 
in the Victoria Hist, of Suffolk, i. 57, that the river Aide was 
called the Ore below Aldeburgh ; and at p. 29, I find " the 
Ore or Aide." This at once suggests that Orford was taken 
to mean the 'ford through the Ore'; but that this is the true 
origin may be doubted. It is much more likely that the lower 
part of the Aide was called the Ore because Orford suggested 
such alteration. The fact remains, that the A.S. ora does not 
mean a river, but a river-bank or a brink of any kind. 

Playford. N.E. of Ipswich, on the river Finn. Spelt 
Playford, Ipm.; H.R.; Plegeforda, D.B., p. 68. From the A.S. 
plega, 'play,' with, in poetry, the occasional sense of 'battle.' 
It may possibly commemorate the scene of a long-forgotten 

POSLINGFORD. Copinger has collected 22 old forms of this 



name, of which only 5 end m. ford; the majority of 17 end in 
luorth ; and it is certain that, as in other cases, ford has been 
substituted for ivorth, which meant ' a farm ' or ' a holding ' ; 
see the names under Worth. Both Duxford and Pampisford, 
in Cambs., have suffered the same alteration. The old spellings 
most worth notice are: PoselingiU7'th,]i.R.,T.'S.; Poselingetvrth, 
'T.N.; Poslindewrda, D.B., p. 182; Poslingewrda, D.B. 233. 
The existence of the form Postlinges in R.B., and of the 
present Postling in Kent, suggests that the full form was 
Postlinga-weorth, i.e. the ' farm (or holding) of the Postlings,' 
a tribe or family otherwise unknown. 

Samford. The name of an old hundred, and still in use. 
Spelt Samford, Sandford, H.R. ; Sanforde, Sampforde, R.B. ; 
Sanfort, D.B., p. 12. Evidently for ' sand-ford,' or ford Avith a 
sandy bottom. Cf. Sandford in Oxfordshire. 

Stratford. Spelt Strafort, D.B., p. 56 ; Stratfort, D.B., 
p. 243. Like other Stratfords, it means a place where ' a street ' 
or old road is continued beyond a stream. The pi'esent road 
from Marlesford to Farnham crosses the river Aide near Strat- 
ford St Andrew. And the road from Colchester to Ipswich 
crosses the Stour near Stratford St Mary. 

Thetford. Nearly all of this town is in Norfolk, but it 
is just on the border of the county, and is worth notice. It is 
situate on the Little Ouse, but a smaller river here joins the 
other, upon which modern ingenuity has bestowed the name 
of Thet ! Here, as in other cases, the river is named from the 
town, and not othei'wise. For the ingenious people who 
devised this name evidently did not know that the old name 
was really Thedford, or more strictly Theedford ; for the e was 
once long. Indeed, the spelling Theedford occurs in the 
Liber de Hyda, p. 10. It is spelt Theodford and Theotford 
in the A.S. Chronicle ; the more correct spelling Theodford 
appearing in the Laud MS., under the dates 870, 1004, and 1010, 
and in the early Parker MS. under 870. The prefix Theod 
means nation, peof)le, race ; also, people in general ; and in 
composition it has the sense of general, popular. Hence the 


sense is 'popular ford,' or ford in frequent use, on the road 
from Bury northwards. Isaac Taylor strangely denounces this 
explanation, but answers his own objection by saying that the 
German Dietfurt means 'ford of the people.' There is another 
Thetford in Cambridgeshire which has the misfortune of not 
possessing any Thet to derive itself from. 

Ufford. Spelt Ufford, H.R., Ipm., R.B.; Ufforda, D.B., p. 89. 
Uf- is short for Uffan, as in Uffan-lege (dative) in Birch, C.S. 
ii. 175, last line ; and Ul^an is the gen. of Uffa. The sense is 
' UfFa's ford.' Uffa is a known name, and distinct from the 
commoner Offa. 

Wangford. In Blything hundred. Yet there was also a 
Wangford hundred, by confusion of two or three distinct 
names, as will be shown. And first, as to the place-name. 
There are really two such place-names ; for Kelly says there 
is a Wangford near Southwold, and another near Brandon. 
This makes three Wangfords ; and they seem to be all of 
different origin. 

(1) Waugford in Blything hundred ; to the N.W. of 
Southwold. Cf. Wangford, H.R. ; Wangeford, Ipm. Spelt 
Wanheforda in D.B., p. 268, where it is associated with 
Frostenden. As nh occurs in Norman for the A.S. ng, the 
A.S. name must have been Wang-ford, just as it is now. The 
sense is obvious, when it is remembered that both the A.S. 
wang and the modern prov. E. wang (also wong) mean a flat 
field. The sense is 'the ford near the flat field.' "Waugford 
Green was all open common till 1817"; Raven, Hist. Suffolk, 
p. 31. 

(2) Wangford in Lackford hundred ; to the S.W. of 
Brandon. Probably so called by confusion with the former ; 
but really for Wainford. I find Waynefoj^d (Suffolk) in T.N. ; 
and Copinger notes such spellings as Waynford and Wainford, 
though these may refer to the hundred. However this may 
be, I find in D.B., p. 156, a name which I read as Wainforda, 
though in the Victoria County History, at p. 494, it is printed 
Wamford, and explained as Wangford ; being certainly in 


Blything Hundred. I prefer my own reading, because Wamford 
is nonsense, and we cannot fairly connect such a form with 
Wangford no. 1 (above). The mistake of writing m for in is 
common, if a mistake it be. I also find Wamford in R.B., 
but suspect that also to be wrong, as there certainly was a 
Wainford somewhere, and we have not yet come to the hundred, 
which had no more claim to be called Wainford than it had 
to be called Wangford. I assume then that Wainford is here 
the right form ; and the sense is obvious, viz. ' wain-ford,' or a 
ford through which a wain could pass, as being but shallow. 
The A.S. form would be lucegn-ford. There is a Wainfleet in 
Lines., and fleet means a shallow stream. 

(3) Wangford hundred. The original name was neither 
Wangford nor Wainford, but occurs in D.B. in another form. 
Thus, at p. 4, it is Wanneforda, and so again at pp. 15, 109, 
178 ; but Waineforda at pp. 35, 94 ; and Wenefort at p. 39. 
Waineforda and Wenefort may have been due to confusion 
with Wainford ; but the prevalent form Wanneford requires 
an explanation for which neither Wangford (Norman Wankford) 
nor Wainford will suffice. I am inclined to accept the guess 
made in Raven's Hist, of Suffolk, at p. 3. He says that the 
Waveney was also called Wanney (which is likely), and suggests 
that "Wainford" here means "Wanneford." Of course the 
suggestion, as so presented, is impossible ; no one ever heard 
of a ivain being called a wanney. But ' Wanney-ford ' may 
very well suggest an origin for the form Wanneford in D.B. 
As thus presented, the guess seems reasonable. 

I therefore interpret the available evidence as showing 
that Wangford near Southwold was always so called, and 
meant ' ford near a wang'; and it was perhaps the oldest name 
of the three. Secondly, that Wangford near Brandon was at 
first called Wainford, or 'ford for a wain.' Thirdly, that 
Wanneford hundred alluded to a ford across the Waveney, 
which forms its northern boundary. 

WiLFORD. The name of a hundred. There is no place 
with this name in Suffolk, though there is one in Notts. Spelt 
Wyleford, Willeford, H.R.; Wileford, D.B., pp. 76, 186. In the 


Crawford Charters, ed. Napier and Stevenson, at p. 33, 1. 3, 
we find: " de wileford"; and the Index says that it means 
" Wilford, CO. Suffolk"; without indicating its exact locality. 
If we can rely upon the form Wileford, in which nearly all 
the authorities agree, perhaps we ma}' explain it as ' Wili's 
ford'; see Wilby. The sense 'willow-ford' is not impossible, 
but is less likely. 

YoxFORD. Spelt Yokisford, Ipm. ; loxford, lokesford, 
H.R.; Gokesford, D.B., p. 298; lokesford, D.B., p. 105. " The 
sense is ' Yoke's ford,' where Yoke is used, apparently, as a 
man's name or nickname. In the A.S. and Northumbrian 
version of the Gospels, the Lindisfarne MS. (Northumbrian) 
translates coniugem in Matt. i. 20 by gehede vel geoc, lit. 
'bedfellow or yoke'; showing that geoc could have the sense 
of ' spouse.' The river at Yoxford is called the Yox ; but the 
above spellings contradict the antiquity of its name. Some 
further light comes from comparing it with Yoxall in Staffs., 
former Yokes-hale, where Yokes can only be a gen. singular. 
At any rate, this second example shows that the form Yox is 
modei-n ; and that the river-name is of no value. Yoxford 
means 'Yoke's ford'; and it is only the interpretation of Yoke 
that is doubtful. Another sense of yoke is pointed out by 
Duignan, who refers us to Birch, C.S. i. 584, 1. 2, where xvi 
give londes means 'sixteen yokes of land,' showing that 'a yoke 
of land' denoted a definite portion of land ; whence the use of 
prov. E. yoke to mean ' a small farm.' If a small farm bad 
acquired the local name of Yoke, we might explain ' Yoke's 
ford' as meaning a ford in its immediate neighbourhood, or 
one used by the farm-servants. This is again one of the cases 
in which the literal sense is obvious, but the exact inter- 
pretation is unattainable, because we oannot tell to what the 
name refers. 

20. Gate. 

There are two distinct words of this form, viz. gate, a street, 
from the O. Norse gata, a street, road, way, and gate, a movable 
barrier, answering to the A.S. geat. The suffix is only found 


in Burgate, Lidgate, and Plomesgate, which will be considered 

Burgate. Spelt Burgata, D.B., pp. 276, 277, A.S. 
Burhgat, occurring in the dat. case as burhgate ; Birch, C.S. 
i. 8, 1. 4 from bottom; variant oihurhgeat, a borough-gate. Of 
course the exact reason for the name is lost. 

Lidgate. The birthplace of Lydgate the poet. Spelt 
Lidgate, H.R.; Lydegate, Litgate, Ipm.; Litgata, D.B., p. 809. 
For A.S. hlidgeat, explained as 'a swing-gate' in the Diet., 
but I suspect that it was rather a clapper-gate, i.e. an old- 
fashioned kind of stile, one end of which falls when pressed 
down, but rises again when the pressure is removed ; cf. A.S. 
Idid, a lid of a box. The dat. Jdidgeate occurs in Birch, A.S. 
ii. 284; spelt hlidgate in the same, p. 164. 

Plomesgate. The name of a hundred. Spelt Plumesgate, 
H.R. ; Plumesgata, D.B., p. 32. The exact origin of the name 
is necessarily lost. It is remarkable that the A.S. plume, a 
plum, was feminine, with a genitive in -an ; but here we have 
to deal with a masc. sb. *Pluvi, gen. * Plumes ; whence the 
sense ' Plum's gate.' The plum is referred to in the place- 
names Plumstead, Plumpton, and Plumtree. 

21. Grave. 

The A.S. grcsf, a grave, also means a ditch, a trench, a 
cutting or entrenchment. This suffix occurs in Gedgrave, 
Hargrave, Hengrave, Kesgrave, Palgrave, and Redgrave. 

Gedgrave. The parish (says Kelly) is a new one. 
Gedgrave Hall lies to the S.W. of Orford, and near it are the 
extensive Gedgrave Marshes. Spelt Gategrave, H.R.; Gatagraua, 
D.B, p. 27; Gategraua, D.B., p. 93. Copiuger also gives the 
spellings Gadegrave, Gadgrave, and Gedgrave. The original 
prefix was obviously Gata-, as in Gata-ford, Gata-tun, Gata-wic; 
all in Kemble's index. As Gatton is in Surrey, it is unlikely that 
Gata- is of Norse origin. It would therefore seem to be the 


A.S. gdta, gen. pi. of gdt, a goat. The literal sense is ' burial- 
place of goats ' ; though grave might merely mean trench, or 
even enclosure. It is obviously impossible to learn the cir- 
cumstances of the case. 

Hargrave. Spelt Hai'egrave, Ipm. ; Haragraua, D.B., 
p. 300. The A.S. form is Haraii-grafa ; in Birch, C.S. iii. 492, 
1. 15. Here grafa is a weak sb., closely related to grcef, a 
grave, and no doubt had the same sense of trench. Haran 
is the gen. of hara, a hare. The sense is ' hare's trench ' ; 
or ' Hare's grave,' taking Hare as a man's name. We cannot 

Hengrave. Spelt Hemgrave, Ipm. ; Hemegrave, H.R. ; 
Hemegretha, D.B., p. 1.54. The last spelling seems to be due 
to some mistake. The exact form of the prefix is not recorded; 
but it may have been *H8ema. The word is not in the 
dictionaries, but is found as a suffix in some place-names ; and 
it is a derivative of ham, a home. Thus Kemble's index has 
Niwen-htema gemero, or ' the boundaries of the dwellers in 
Newnham ' ; literally, 'the boundaries of the new-homers.' 
Hence a possible sense is 'grave of the dwellers in the home'; 
possibly ' a family burial-place.' We cannot ascertain the 

Kesgrave. To the E. of Ipswich. Copinger records the 
early forms Kessegrave and Kekesgrave, of which the latter 
must be the older. Prof. Moorman shows that Kexmoor in 
the W. Riding was originally spelt Ketelsmore, and Kex is 
the natural contraction of Kekes. The name Ketel is Norse, 
originally spelt Ketill; and the occurrence of the hard K before 
the e is in itself an indication of Norse origin ; since the A.S. 
Ce became Clie. The name has been much corrupted, probably 
because the prefix was un-English. The succesive changes 
must have been from KetilLs or Ketels to Ketes ; then to 
Kekes, Kex.'and Kes. The original sense was probably 'Ketill's 

Palgrave. Spelt Palegraue, H.R.; Palegraua, D.B., p. 161; 
Palegrave (in the dat. case), in Birch, C.S. iii. 314; in a grant 


dated 962. Perhaps from the A.S. pal, a pole, a pale, a stake; 
a word borrowed from the L. pdliis. If so, the sense may be 
'grave enclosed with palings.' 

Redgrave, Spelt Redgrave, H.R. When we compare it 
with Redditch in Worcs., there seems to be no reason why it 
may not have meant ' red trench,' or a trench cut through red 

22. Hale, Hall. 

The suffix hale is of much importance, as it is in common 
use in many counties, and frequently appears in disguised 
spelling, usually assuming the form of liall. 

It has become -all in Aspall, and -ale in Kelsale ; and has 
been changed into -hall in Benhall, Blaxhall, Buxhall, Ilkets- 
hall, Knettishall, Knodishall, Mildenhall,Peasenhall,RickiDghall, 
Ringshall, Spexhall, Uggeshall, and Westhall. The suffix in 
Foxhall was originally -hole, while that in Lawshall and Stradis- 
hall was -sele. But all the words that now end in -hall, -all, or 
-ale, will be taken together, for convenience. Not one of them 
originally ended in -hall ; whereas fifteen of them once ended 
in -hale. 

The 0. Merc, hale, A.S. heale, only appears in the dative 
case ; the nom. ended in It, the O. Merc, form being halh, and 
the A.S. healh. Halh has given us the modern haugh, which 
is explained in the E.D.D. as meaning ' low-lying, level ground 
by the side of a river'; while the pro v. E. hale (from the above 
dative case) is similarly defined as 'a piece of flat alluvial land 
by the side of a river.' The old sense of halh or healh seems 
to have been a corner, nook, or sheltered place ; it seems safe 
to define it as 'a sheltered spot, beside a river'; pei'haps we 
may call it 'a nook' for the sake of brevity. 

Aspall. Spelt Aspenhalle, Ipm. ; Espala, D.B., p. 196 ; 
Aspella, D.B., p. 275; Aspala, D.B., p. 339. Copinger gives 
many spellings, of which the best are Aspale, Asphale, Asphal. 
The etymology is evidently from the A.S. cesp, an asp-tree or 
aspen-tree, and liale, as explained above. The variant Aspenhalle 


is valuable, as giving aspen, which is really an adjectival form, 
made by adding -en (as in gold-en, tuood-en) to the A.S. cesp. 
The sense is 'aspen-nook.' 

Benhall. Spelt Benhall, Ipm., p. 161 ; but BenJiale earlier, 
Ipm., p. 121. D.B. has Benhala, pp. 57, 128; Benehcda, pp. 57, 
130; Benenhala, pp.56, 130; Benehalla,^. 34. The right form, 
amongst these, is Benenhala ; where Benen represents A.S. 
Beonan, gen. of Beona ; a personal name occurring in Beonan- 
feld, in Kemble's index. The sense is ' Beona's nook.' 

Blaxhall. Spelt Blakeshal, H.R. ; Ipm. ; D.B. has Blaches- 
sala, pp. 31, 53 ; with che for ke, and s wrongly repeated ; 
Blaccheshala, D.B., p. 53. Copinger also gives Blacheshala, 
Blakeshale. The prefix represents A.S. Bheces, gen. of Blcec, 
lit. ' black,' used as a personal name, like Black at the present 
day. The sense is ' Black's nook.' 

Buxhall. Spelt Bakeshale, R.B., T.N. ; Buckeshale, T.N. ; 
Buckeshala, D.B., p. 139. It appears as Bucyshealm, in the 
dat. case, in ^IfiBaed's Will ; in Birch, CS. iii. 602. Bucys is 
an inferior spelling of Bucces, gen. of Bucc, lit. ' a buck,' but 
here used as a man's name. The sense is ' Buck's nook.' 

Foxhall. To the E. of Ipswich, and S. of Kesgrave. There 
is also a Foxhall Hall, which is not tautological, since it stands 
for Foxhole Hall ; as old spellings show. Spelt Foxehole, H.R. ; 
Foxeliola, D.B., p. 212. The form Foxe- shows that the prefix 
represents the A.S. gen. pi. foxa, ' of foxes ' ; and the whole 
word represents foxa holu, ' holes of foxes,' or ' foxholes,' which 
has been turned into ' foxhole,' by neglecting the pi. suffix -u. 

Ilketshall. Spelt Ilketeleshale, H.R. ; shortened to 
Ilketeshale, Ipm. D.B. has Ilcheteleshala, p. 40 ; shortened to 
Ilcheteshala, pp. 40, 151 ; with che for ke. From a Norse name, 
as the use of ke shows. The sense seems to be ' Ilketill's nook.' 
Ketill is very common in Norse names, or in names adapted 
from them ; but I find no compound with the prefix II-. There 
can hardly be any doubt that Ilketill is a reduced form of the 
known name Ulfketill ; so that the original sense was really 


' Ulfketill's nook.' Indeed, it is likely enough that the 
reference is to a famous Ulfeytel who was alderman of East 
Anglia, and inflicted a serious defeat upon the Danes in the 
year 1004; see the A.S. Chronicle. Nevertheless, his name 
was of Norse origin ; Ulfcetel was a very common Norse name, 
and Bjorkman (p. 169) gives the shortened form Ulketel, for 
which D.B. has substituted Ilketel, spelt Ilchetel because D.B. 
has che for ke regularly. 

Kelsale. Spelt Keleshulle, R.B. (wrongly) ; but Keleshale, 
H.R. ; Ipm. ; and Keleshala, D.B., p. 59. Copinger has many 
other forms, giving the prefix as Gheles (in Norman spelling, 
with che for ke), Kales, Kelis, Keils, Kels (very rarely with II)', 
so that the vowel was long. Perhaps the prefix was Ceoles, 
gen. of Ceol, a known name ; for though Ceol would normally 
be palatalised to Chele, this process was sometimes arrested by 
Danish influence, as in the case of Kellington in the West 
Riding, which is from Ceolinga-tun ; see Prof. Moorman's 
explanation of this name. The very same thing seems to 
have occurred again in the case of Kelshall (Herts.), which 
has the same prefix, though the suffix -hall has there been 
substituted for ' hill ' ; see my Place-names of Herts., p. 34. 
Thus the name probably means ' Ceol's nook.' 

Knettishall. Also sometimes Knattishall, as in Philips' 
County Atlas. Kirby calls it Knattishall or Gnattshall. Spelt 
Gnateshal, T.N.; also Ghenetessala, D.B., p. 81, with ss for sh; 
Gnedeshalla, D.B., p. 174; Gnedassala, D.B., 336. The use of 
a or e in the first syllable, and the spelling with gn, suggest 
that the prefix was associated with the A.S. gncettes, gen. of 
gncett or gncet, a gnat ; but it probably represents the Norse 
name Knottr (gen. Knattar), given by Rygh. If so, the sense 
is ' Knottr's nook.' The English turned Knattar into Knattes. 

Knodishall. Spelt Knoteshal, H.R.; Cnotesheala, D.B., 
p. 106; Chenotessala, D.B., p. 116 (with Chen for Kn, and ss 
for sh). Also Knoteshalle, Ipm. Apparently from a personal 
name *Cnot: but I can only find Cnott, with a short vowel, as 


in Gnottis rode, in Kemble, vi. 217, 1. 10. Tiiis would give us 
the sense of ' Cnott's nook,' or ' Knott's nook.' Prof. Moorman 
refers Knottingley in the W. Riding to an O. Norse personal 
name Knottr ; but the form given by Rygh is KnOttr (gen. 
Knattar) ; as in Knettishall above. 

Lawshall. In this case, the evidence shows that the 
suffix was neither hall nor hale, but sele. This sele is the A.S. 
sele, m. (gen. seles), also found as seel, n. (gen. swles, seles), a 
habitation, dwelling-place, house. The form in D.B. is Laives- 
selam, p. 196. Copinger gives many other forms (without 
noting the sources) ; the chief are Lausel, Lausele, Lawcell, 
Lawsele, Lawsell. The word appears to be a compound sb. ; 
and, as aw usually corresponds to an A.S. ag, it could easily 
be derived from the A.S. lagu, a lake, and sele, a dwelling ; 
meaning ' a dwelling-place near a lake.' If this be so, the 
situation of this dwelling-place would not be near the present 
Hall, but near the Hall in Chadacre Park, about a mile to the 
S.W., where a small lake is marked upon the ordnance map, 
as being an expansion of the Chad Brook. See lay, sb. (1), 
by-form laiu, a lake, a pool, in the N.E.D. 

Mildenhall. Spelt Mildenhal, H.R.; miswritten Mitdene- 
halla, B.D., p. 16. But fortunately, the true dat. form Milden- 
hale occurs in a charter of Edward the Confessor ; see Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 418, 1. 13. Milden is a late spelling of Mildan, 
gen. of Milda, which represents some name beginning with 
Mild, such as Mildred, which was formerly masculine. The 
sense is ' Milda's nook.' For the prefix, cf. Mildan-hald ; Birch, 
C.S. i. 452. 

Peasenhall. Spelt Pesenhale, H.R. ; Ipm. ; Pesenhala, 
D.B., p. 102 ; Fisehalla, D.B., p. 64. The prefix is the A.S. 
pisena, gen. of pisan, which is the pi. of pisa, a pea. This pi. 
pisan became pesen in Mid. Eng., and peasen in the sixteenth 
century. The sense is ' peas-nook ' ; or a sheltered spot where 
peas were grown. Or the prefix may represent pisan-, com- 
bining form of pisa when forming a compound. 


RiCKiNGHALL. Spelt Rykingliole, Ipm. D.B. has Rikin- 
chala, p. 95; Richingehala, p. 161; Rikinghala, p. 58. From 
A.S. Rlcinga, which occurs in Rlcinga-hmn, in Kemble's index. 
Ricinga is the gen. pi. of Ricing, a son of Rica. The sense is 
' nook of the sons (or family) of Rica.' 

RiNGSHALL. Spelt Ringeshale, Ipm. ; Ringeshal, T.N. ; 
Ringeshala, D.B., p. 249. The prefix is the A.S. Hringes, gen. 
of Hring (borrowed from the 0. Norse Hringr), and the sense 
is 'Hringr's nook.' See RiNGSFiELD. 

Spexhall. Copinger gives as old spellings such forms as 
Speccyshale, Spectyshale (obvious error for Speccyshale), Spet- 
teshale (error for Specceshale), Speckshall, &c. The suffix is 
clearly hale. The prefix can only take the form of Specces, 
gen. of an A.S. *Specc, which is unknown. If it were a 
name, we should then have 'Speck's nook' as the sense. The 
E.D.D. says that Speck is the Norf. word for a wood-pecker, 
which would represent an A.S. *specc, and would be cognate 
with the G. 8pech-t. Kluge says that the E. speight, a wood- 
pecker, is borrowed from German, but thinks that the G. 
Specht may be allied to the A.S. specca, a speck ; with reference 
to the parti-coloured plumage of the bird. My guess is that 
the name means 'wood-pecker's nook.' Compare Yaxley, i.e. 
' cuckoo's lea.' 

Stradishall. Here the suffix is not hale, but sele, a 
dwelling-place ; as in Lawshall (above). D.B. has Stratesella, 
p. 233. Copinger gives such forms as Stradesel, Stradesele, 
Stradesyll ; and H.R, has 8t7xitesele, Strattesele. I suppose the 
original form to have been the A.S. stra't-sele, i.e. 'dwelling 
near a street' or old road. The A.S. strwt is frequently 
represented by Strat- in Strattons and Stratfords. The medial 
-is- or -es- was easily introduced as a fictitious genitive suffix, 
as it is common in many place-names, and was suggested by 
the s in the suffix -sele. About a mile and a half from the 
present Stradishall church we find a Wickham Street marked 
on the ordnance map, which leads directly to Wickhambrook. 
The present road from Stradishall to Clare passes through a 


place where the map has a Chilton Street ; and a road joining 
Wickham Street to Chilton Street would pass through or near 

Uggeshall. Spelt Huggethale, error for Uggec{e)hale, T.N. 
D.B. has Uggiceheala, p. 38 ; Wggessala, p. 337 ; Ulkesala, 
p. 102. All these are bad spellings, but they lead back to 
the form Ugges-hale, evidently compounded of the suffix liale 
and of Ugges, gen. of Ugg, not an English name, but adapted 
from the Dan. Uggi, allied to the Icel. uggi-, fear, which has 
given us the adj. ugly. The sense is ' Uggi's nook.' (Uggr 
is one of the names of the god Odin in the Edda.) 

Westhall. Spelt Westhale, H.R.; R.B. The sense is 
simply 'west nook.' 

23. Ham. 

This is an extremely common suffix, and arises from two 
distinct sources, which cannot in many cases be separated ; so 
that all the names in -ham must be considered together. The 
modern -ham represents either (1) A.S. ham, a home, or 
village, or village community, shortened to ham in an un- 
stressed position; or (2) the A.S. hamm, also Jtam, meaning 
an 'enclosure' or 'a place fenced in,' connected with the modern 
English to hem in. In the few cases in which the ultimate 
origin can be ascertained, the fact will be noted. 

This common suffix occurs in the following, viz. Akenham, 
Aldham, Aldringham, Badingham, Barham, Barnham, Barning- 
ham, Barsham, Baylham, Blakenham, Brantham, Brettenham, 
Bucklesham, Cavenham, Chattisham, Coddenham, Cretingham, 
Dalham, Darsham, Debenham, Denham, (Santon) Downham, 
Elmham, Fakenhara, Falkenham, Farnham, Felsham, Finning- 
ham, Fornham, Framlingham, Freckenham, Gisleham, Gisling- 
ham, Glemham, Helmingham, Henham, Heveningham, Higham, 
Hintlesham, Hitcham, Horham, Icklingham, Ingham, Langham, 
Lavenham, Layham, Letheringham, Martlesham, Mendham, 
Mendlesham, Mettingham, Needham Market, Pakenham, 
Parham, Redisham, Reudham, Rendlesham, Rougham, Saxham, 


Saxinundhani, Shottisham, Soham, Somersham, Stonham, Syle- 
ham, Thelnetham, Thoraham, Tuddenham, Walsham, Wattis- 
ham, Wenham, Whelnetham, Wickham Market, Wickhambrook, 
Willingham, Willisham, Witnesham, Worlingham, Wortham, 
and Wrentham ; more than eighty in number. 

Akenham. Ill spelt Acreham, D.B., p. 17. Aken represents 
the A.S. Acan, gen. of Aca, a known name. Cf. Acan-tiln, in 
Birch, iii. 603. We may generally take -ham to mean ' home ' 
after a personal name in the genitive, unless there is evidence 
to the contrary. The probable sense is ' Aca's home.' 

Aldham. Spelt Aldham, Ipm.; Aldeham, D.B., p. 14. 
The e in Aide- indicates the use of the definite form of the 
adjective. For O. Merc, se alda ham, nom., or cet tham aldan 
hdme, dative. It means ' the old home.' 

Aldringham. Spelt Aldringham, H.R.; but Alrincham in 
D.B., p. 59. The A.S. personal name Eallrinc occurs in Birch, 
C.S. ii. 45 as a witness; answering to 0. Merc. Allrinc. The 
gen. suffix -es has been lost, as occasionally happens. The sense 
is ' Allrinc's home.' 

Badingham, or Baddingham. Near Framlingham. Spelt 
Badingham, H.R.; Badincham, D.B., p. 96. The name Bada 
occurs in the Liber Vitse of Durham, and elsewhere. The 
sense is ' home of the Badings,' or ' of the sons of Bada.' (A.S. 
Badinga ham.) Compare Badley, Bad well. 

Barham. Spelt Bergham, Ipm., p. 241 ; Berhani, D.B., 
p. 236 ; Bercham, p. 49. The prefix is the O. Merc, herh, 
A.S. heorh, a hill, a barrow ; and the suffix is, in this case, 
probably hamm, an enclosure. The sense is ' hill-enclosure ' ; 
or ' enclosure beside a hill.' There is a small hill near it. 
(N.B. Barham, Kent, is A.S. Beoraham.) 

Barnham. Spelt Bernham, T.N.; D.B., p. 37. From A.S, 
bern, herern, a barn. The sense is ' barn-enclosure ' ; or ' en- 
closure with a barn.' 


Barningham. Spelt Berningham, KB. ; D.B., p. 170 ; 
Berni7icham, D.B,, p. 147. For O. Merc. Berninga ham, A.S. 
Beoringa ham. The sense is 'home of the Bernings' (A.S. 
Beornings), or ' of the sons of Bern ' (A.S. Beorn). 

Barsham. Spelt Barsham, T.N. ; Barshmn, D.B., p. 94 ; 
Bersham, D.B., pp. 109, 110. From the A.S. Bwre,gen. Bwres. 
The sense is ' Baere's home.' Baere is a known name. 

Baylham. Spelt Beilhant, Ipm.; Beylham, Ipm.; Baylham, 
Ipm.; Beleham, D.B., p. 112. The diphthong ei suggests a 
Scandinavian origin ; and as the Mid. E. slei, ' sly,' is from 
the 0. Norse sla^gr (in Zoega's O. Icel. Diet.), so I suppose 
beil- may be from the O. Icel. boeli, a farm, dwelling. The 
sense may be ' farm-enclosure.' 

Blakenham. Spelt Blakenham, H.R.; Blacheham, D.B., 
p. 142 (with che for ken). The corresponding A.S. form is 
Blacan-hdm, i.e. ' Blaca's home.' Blaca is a known name. 

Brantham. Spelt Brantham, Ipm.; D.B., p. 31 ; Brantestana, 
D.B., p. 30. Copinger also gives the spelling Brentham. It 
seems to be derived directly from the A.S. brant, 'steep'; if 
so, the sense is ' the steep enclosure,' or ' enclosure near the 
steep slope.' 

Brettenham. Spelt Bretenham, H.R.; T.N.; Ipm. ; Bretham, 
D.B., p. 22 ; Bretenhama, D.B., p. 177. Not to be connected 
with the Britons ; because the A.S. Brytt, a Briton, is a strong 
sb., with the gen. sing. Bryttes and gen. pi. Brytta (without n). 
The origin is rather from the A.S. brettan, bryttan, gen. of 
bretta, brytta, mostly in the sense of 'lord,' or 'prince'; though 
the literal meaning is 'distributor'; cf, Icel. bryti, a steward. 
The probable meaning is 'prince's home.' It is clear that 
Brettenham suggested the name of Breton (as it is spelt in 
Kirby, p. 270) for the river that rises near it, though the name 
is now shortened to Bret, which disguises the connexion. 

BucKLESHAM. Spelt Bokelesham, H.R.; Bukelesham, D.B., 
p. 23. These forms suggest an A.S. form *Bucles (or *Buccles) 
ham, i.e. *Bucers (or *Buccers) home ; but the forms Bucel, 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 4 


Buccel are not recorded. They look like a diminutive from 
the known name Bucca. Compare Buckle Brook, Lanes. 

Cavenham. "For shortness called Canham " ; Kirby(1813). 
Spelt Gauenham, H.R. ; Ipm. (printed Cavenham); Kauanaham, 
D.B., p. 245, where it is apparently miswritten as Kanaaaham. 
The third a is superfluous, and may have been due to confusion 
with Kauanadis, which is the misspelling in D.B., at p. 335, of 
Kauanedis (Cavendish). The right form is Cauanham, where 
Cauan is the gen. of Caua (in Searle's Onomasticon), which 
should rather be written as Gafa ; for / is the right symbol 
for V between two vowels. The sense is ' Cafa's home.' See 

Chattisham. Spelt Chatisham, H.R.; Ghatesham, Ipm.; 
Getessam, D.B., p. 14. Ghates represents an A.S. *Geattes, gen. 
of *Geatt. This exact form does not occur ; but the correspond- 
ing weak form Geatta is found in Geattan-broc ; in Kemble's 
index. The sense is ' Ceatt's home'; or ' Ceat's home.' Com- 
pare Chettisham, Cambs. 

CoDDENHAM. Spelt Godeiikam, Ipm.; D.B., pp. 9, 115. For 
A.S. Godan ham, where Codan is the gen. of Goda, as in Godan- 
ford, Godan-clibe (Birch, C.S. i. 295). The sense is ' Coda's 
home.' See Cotton. 

Cretingham. Spelt Greting, H.R. ; Gretinges, T.N. ; 
Gretingaham (for Greting a J tarn), D.B., pp. 39, 305. It seems 
safest to refer these forms to the A.S. Gretta, as this is a known 
name. Then Greting (H.R.) would represent the gen. pi. 
Grettinga, 'of the sons of Cretta'; Gretinges (T.N.) would 
represent the nom. pi. Grettingas; and the place-name will 
mean ' home of the sons (or family) of Cretta.' 

Dalham. Spelt Dalham, H.R. ; R.B. ; D.B. ; p. 219; 
Daelham, Birch, C.S. iii. 612, last line. From A.S. dcel, a dale. 
The sense is 'dale-enclosure,' or 'enclosure in the dale.' 'Dale- 
home' is less probable; but quite possible. 

Darsham. Spelt Z>er5Aa7>t, Ipm.; H.R.; D.B. p. 4; Dersam, 


D.B., p. 24 ; Diresham, D.B., p. 108. For A.S. Deoies ham ; 
i.e. ' Deor's home.' The literal sense oi deor is 'deer.' 

Debenham. Spelt Deheham, H.R. ; R.B. ; Depham, D.B., 
p. 192; Depbeham, on the same page; Dephenham, D.B., 
pp. 49, 50. Also Depham, Ipm. ; Dehham, in a late copy of a 
charter, in Kemble, iv. 245. 

The spellings DepbenJiam, Depbeham are only variants of 
Debbenham, Debbeham, as shown by the D.B. spelling of Up- 
bestuna for Ubbeston. The original form was certainly the 
adj. deop, 'deep,' in the dative case deopan; in the phrase cet 
thcim deopan hamme, 'at the deep enclosure'; or, less probably, 
wt thdm deopan hdme, ' at the deep home.' Under the stress, 
the eo was shortened, giving Deppenham and Debbenham ; 
Depham and Debham resulted immediately from the nom. 
deop hamm (or ham). There is a Deopham in Norfolk ; and 
the modern Deptford is spelt Depeford in Chaucer; meaning 
'deep ford.' 

It follows that it is wholly impossible even to imagine that 
Debenham took its name from the river Deben ; on the con- 
trary, the river was named from the place, because it there 
takes its rise. " The country round this Town is very deep 
and dirty, but the Town itself is clean, standing on a rising 
Hill"; Kirby. 

Denham. There are two places of this name ; one near 
Bury, and one near Eye (Kelly). Spelt Denham, H.R. ; T.N. ; 
D.B., p. 59 ; Deneham, Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 408. In the last, 
the prefix Dene- represents the A.S. denu, a valley, rather than 
Dena/of the Danes.' The sense may well be 'valley-enclosure,' 
or ' enclosure in the valley.' 

Downham, or Santon Downham, as distinguished from 
Santon in Norfolk, on the other side of the Little Ouse 
(Kelly). The soil is of light sand ; and Santon means Sand- 
town. i)«/iAam, D.B., pp. 157, 203. There is another Downham 
in Norfolk, at some distance to the N.W. Downham is probably 
the A.S. Dun-ham {=D€in-hamm), i.e. ' hill-enclosure.' Kemble 
and Thorpe mark the a in ham as long, but without authority ; 



according to Thorpe, at pp. 383, 422, and 424 of his Diplo- 
matarium, the MS. has 'Dunham' in each passage ; and all the 
passages occur in quite late charters. Were the a long (which 
I doubt) the sense would be ' hill-home.' 

Elmham. The South Elmhams are parishes in the Northern 
division of the county ; viz. South E. All Saints, South E. 
St George, St James, St Margaret, St Michael, and St Peter. 
Spelt Elmham, H.R. : T.N. ; Elmeham, D.B., p. 94. The sense 
is 'enclosure (or home) near the elm.' 

Fakenham. Spelt Fakeham, R.B., T.N. ; Fachenham, D.B., 
p. 174 ; Fakenham, in a late copy of an A.S. document, in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 594. The prefix represents an A.S. 
*Facan, gen. of *Faca ; cf. the recorded names Fac-ualdus and 
Facca. The sense is ' Faca's home' or ' enclosure.' 

Falkenham. Spelt Falkeham, T.N. ; Faltenham, error for 
Falcenham, D.B., p. 120; cf. Falchenham in Birch, CS. iii. 
659. Nearly the same name as that of Fawkham, Kent, 
which appears in a Latin charter as Falcheham, in Birch, C.S. 
iii. 375 (1. 6 from bottom); but in a better A.S. charter as 
Fealcna-ham, in the same, iii. 374, 1. 5. Here Fealcna must 
be the gen. pi. of Fealca, which can only be the L. falco, a 
falcon, done into English spelling ; whence also the gen. sing. 
Fealcan. This A.S. form is otherwise unknown, but it may 
have been in occasional use, as the Lat. y>^. fal cones appears in 
the Epinal and Corpus Glossaries, both of the eighth century. 
The sense is ' the enclosure of the falcon ' ; or ' Falcon's enclo- 
sure.' Compare Hawkedon, above. 

Farnham. Spelt Farnham, D.B., p. 72 ; Ferneham, D.B., 
p. 128. The A.S. form is Fearnham, in Kemble's index. The 
sense is, probably, ' fern-enclosure ' rather than ' fern-home.' 

Felsham. Spelt Felisham, Ipm. ; Fealsham, D.B., p. 164. 
Copinger also notes the form Faleshani. The prefix answers to 
the A.S. Fades, which appears in Fddes-gnefe, in Birch, iii. 
587, 1. 3 from bottom (twice). The nom. case is Fcele ; cf. A.S. 
fwle, adj., faithful, good. The sense is ' Ftele's home.' 


FiNNiNGHAM. Spelt Feningham, Ipm. ; Finingaham, D.B., 
p. 58. Copinger also gives Finingham. The spelling with en 
ought to be significant, as en usually becomes in ; but not 
conversely ; and fen-ing might mean a fen-man. The sense is 
either ' home of the fen-men,' or ' home of the sons of Finn.' 
But in the latter case we should expect to find nn in the old 

FoRNHAM. There are three places of this name near 
together, viz. F. All-Saints, F. St Martin, and F. St Genevieve. 
Spelt Fornham, Ipm.: D.B., p. 162. Forna was a somewhat 
common name, as there are half-a-dozen examples of it; we 
may conclude that the original form was Fornanhdin, i.e. 
' Forna's home.' The syllable an would be very easily lost, 
owing to the repetition of n. Rygh gives Forni as a Norse 
name ; whence (says Bjorkraan) the A.vS. Forna was borrowed. 

Framlingham. Spelt Framling ham, Ipm.; Framelingham, 
H.R. ; Framelingham, D.B., p. 44 : Framelingaham, D.B., pp. 90, 
297. The last suggests ' home of the Framelings ' ; but whether 
that is quite the correct form, we have no further evidence. 

Freckenham. Spelt Frekenham, H.R.; Frakena.ham,'D.'B., 
p. 201. Also Freheham (twice) in a twelfth century copy of 
an A.S. charter originally dated 895 ; in Birch, C.S. ii. 212, 
213. We also find Frecan-thorn in Birch, C.S. ii. 270. Frecan 
is the gen. of freca, a bold man, a warrior. The form in D.B. 
suggests the gen. pi. frecena, as if it were 'home of the 
warriors ' ; rather than the gen. sing, frecan, which would give 
' home of the warrior.' Cf. the patronymic Frsecing ; Birch, 
C.S. i. 474. 

GiSLEHAM. Spelt Gisleham, D.B., pp. 5, 43. The form 
Oislan-ford occurs in an A.S. charter ; Birch, C.S. iii. 588. 
Here Glslan is the gen. of Glsla ; compare the names Glsl- 
heald, Glslbeorht, &c. But Gtsli (says Rygh) was a common 
Nonse name, and Gisle- well represents its genitive Glsla ; 
moreover the Norse initial g remained hard, whilst the A.S. g 
usually became y and then disappeared. The sense is ' Gisli's 


GiSLiNGHAM. Spelt Gyslyngham, H.R. ; Gislingaham, 
D.B., p. 11 ; Gislingheham, D.B., p. 83. The sense is 'home of 
the Gislings,' or 'of the sons of Gisli.' See the preceding 

Glemham. Sipeh Olemham,l\:im.; D.B., p. 245; Gliemham, 
D.B., pp. 33, 129 ; Glaimham, D.B., p. 56. The forms Gliem-, 
Glaim-, show that the vowel was formerly long. Perhaps for 
*Gl^m-hamm ; from the A.S. glw7n, gleam, brightness. This 
suggests the sense ' gleam-enclosure ' ; as if it were in a sunny 
situation. Of. Glemsford. This solution is, of course, con- 
jectural. The name of the river Glem is probably unoriginal ; 
for otherwise, we should expect the form Glemford. Glemham 
and Glemsford are a long way apart. 

Helmingham. So spelt in Ipm., T.N. ; Helmingheham, 
D.B., p. 22. Compare Helmyngton in Kemble's index. For A.S. 
Helming a-hdm; 'home of the Helmings,' or 'of the sons of 

Henham. Near Wangford. So spelt in H.R., T.N. ; also 
Heneham, T.N. Copinger also gives Heenham. Spelt Hen- 
ham, D.B., p. 268. The dat. case Hean-hammce occurs in 
Birch, C.S., iii. 649. Here htan is the dat. of heah, high ; 
and hammce is the dat. of hamm. The sense is ' at the high 
enclosure.' See Higham. 

Heveningham. To the S.W. of Hales worth. Spelt Heve- 
ningham, Ipm.; Heueningham, H.R; Heueniggeham, D.B., p. 107. 
The form Hefan-croft occurs in Kemble's index ; where Hefan 
is the gen. of Hefa, a known name. Thus the A.S. form would 
be *Hefaninga-ham, i.e. 'home of the Hefanings' or 'of the 
sons of Hefa.' 

Higham. Near the Stour, to the W. of E. Bergholt. Spelt 
Heham, Ipm.; Heyham, H.R.; Heiham, D.B., p. 285. A charter 
relating to Higham (Kent) is endorsed ' boc to heh-ham ' in a 
hand of the eleventh century ; Birch, C.S., i. 301. Heh is the 
O. Merc, form of A.S. heah, high. The sense is 'high enclosure.' 
The dat. case occurs in Henham. 


HiNTLESHAM, Sipelt Hijntlesham, iTpm.] Hintlesham.T.'N.; 
D.B., p. 17 ; and in a late A.S. charter, in Thorpe, Diplomat., 
p. 569. Also Hintelesham, R.B., H.R. ; Hentlesham, Huntles- 
ham, T.N. The vai'iation in the sound of the first vowel, which 
appears as y, i, e, and x, can be accounted for if we assume it 
to have been originally y. Hence the sense is 'home of Hyntel'; 
where Hyntel is a name not yet recorded. But it is a regular 
diminutive of A.S. Hunta, which would give *Huntila, *Hyntel. 

HiTCHAM. Spelt Hicham, Ipm.; Hecham, H.R.; D.B., p. 208; 
Hetcham, D.B., p. 221. The dat. Hecan-ige occurs in an A.S. 
charter; Kemble, CD., vi. 221; and the name Heca occurs 
again in the A.S. Chronicle. The A.S. form would be Hecan- 
hdm, i.e. ' home of Heca.' Copinger records the spelling 
Heacham ; so that Heacham (Norf ) is the same name. 

HoRHAM. Spelt Horham, H.R.; Hoi^am, D.B., p. 97. The 
spelling Horham occurs in Bp Theodred's Will ; see Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 513. From the A.S. horu, mud. The sense is 
' mud-enclosure,' or ' muddy enclosure.' The same prefix occurs 
in Horbury and Hoiton, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

ICKLINGHAM. Spelt 7/;e^z»^Aam, H.R. ; T.N.; Ecclingaham, 
D.B., pp. 16, 271. The prefix is the same as in Ickleton, 
formerly Icklington, Cambs. ; see the A.S. spelling Icelingtim 
in ^If helm's Will ; in Birch, C.S., ii. 630. The sense is ' home 
of the Iclings ' or ' of the sons of Icel.' Icel and Iceling (of 
which Icling is an abbreviation) both occur in the A.S. 
Chronicle. The Iclingas or Iclings were a Mercian family. 
See my accounts of Ickleford, Cambs., and Icleford, Herts. 
Of course none of these names is in any way connected with 
the Icenhild Way, as the antiquaries so often delight in saying, 
in contempt of phonetic considerations. Sometimes they invoke 
the Iceni ! 

Ingham. Spelt Yngeham, R.B. ; Ingham, D.B., p. 167 ; 
Incham, D.B., p. 135. In an Oxfordshire charter, dated 880, 
there is mention of " Incghsema gem^re," or ' boundary of the 
men of Incgham ' ; where the occurrence of cd shows that the a 
in liam was long, and the sense ' home.' Incgham, variant of 


Ingham, is a compound word, and the prefix ing represents the 
O. Norse eng, a meadow; as in Ingbirchworth in the W. Riding 
of Yorkshire. The prefix is certainly Norse ; we do not find 
any trace of it in such counties as Beds., Berks., Carabs., Herts., 
Hunts., which show scarcely any sign of Scandinavian influence. 
(Inkpen, Berks., means ' Inga's pen,' where Inga is a personal 
name.) The sense of Ingham is ' meadow-home.' There is 
another Ingham in Norfolk, and a third in Lines. 

Langham, Four miles N. [by W.] of Elmswell station 
(Kelly). Spelt Langeham, R.B. ; Langham, D.B., p. 173. I 
suppose it means ' long enclosure ' ; from the A.S, lang, long. 

Lavenham. Spelt Lauenham, H.R. ; D.B., pp. 149, 275; 
Lauanham, in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 521, 1. 2. Here Lauan 
represents the A.S. Lafan, gen. of Lafa, a name recorded in 
the Liber Vitae of Durham. The sense is 'Lafa's home.' Often 
shortened to Lauham, and actually spelt Lanam by Skelton, in 
bis Why Come ye nat to Courte, 1. 930. Dyce wrongly^ explains 
it as meaning Langham (Essex), 

Layham.. To the S. of Hadleigh. Spelt Leyham, T.N. ; 
H.R.; Ipm,; Leiham, D.B., p. 246. But it is spelt Hligham 
(in connexion with Hadleigh) in iElfflSd's Will ; in Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 520, 1. 10. I cannot explain this form hltg, in 
which the final g was, however, a mere glide, except by con- 
necting it with the O. Friesic hli, O. Norse hly, warmth, Dan. 
ly, shelter, cover, and the O.N. hlyi^ warm, A.S. hleoiv, shelter, 
protection; prov. E. lew, shelter, and E. lee. Cf. A.S. Iilywan, 
to keep warm ; in Napier's Glosses, i. 252. The modern form 
also presents difficulty ; there may have been confusion with 
the verb to lay. See Lay, verb, in the E.D.D., sect. 24 ; where 
lay is given as a sb., meaning ' shelter for wild fowl.' There is 
a probability that the right sense is 'sheltered enclosure'; with 
reference to protection from cold. 

Letheringham. Spelt Letheringham, Ipm. ; Letheringa- 
ham, D.B., p. 216 ; Ledringaham, D.B., p. 135. I think the 
A.S. form of the prefix must have been Leoderinga, gen. pi. 
of Leodering, for Leod(h)er-ing, i.e. son of Lead-here, a known 
name, formed from two very common elements. If so, the sense 


is 'home (or enclosure) of the sons of Leodhcre.' Compare 
Letheringsett, Norf 

Martlesham. To the S.W. of Woodbridge. Spelt Mar- 
cles/iam (with c for t), Ipm., p. 218; but Merlesham (without t), 
D.B., p. 287, which can hardly be right. Copinger also gives 
the forms Martelisham, Marthelisliam, Martilsham, Mertlesham, 
Me7'tlisham ; all from a base Mart-, Marth-, Mert-. The only 
name with a similar base is Mart-ley, Wore. ; and the only 
Teutonic word at all resembling this is the A.S. mearth, a 
marten ; 0. Norse mofSr. A base *Mart- might give a dimin. 
*Mertila, A.S. *iyiertel ; whence we might obtain the sense of 
' Mertel's home.' But we have no sufficient evidence of this; 
so that the name remains unsolved. 

Mendham. On the Waveney; to the S.W. of Bungay. So 
spelt in T.N. ; R.B. ; Ipm. ; D.B., p. 175 ; also in a late copy of 
Bp Theodred's Will, in Thorpe, Diplomat, p. 513; and Mi/nd- 
ham, on the same page; also Myndaham, Birch, iii. 210, 1. 17 ; 
see below. 

Mendlesham. Spelt Mendlesham, R.B.; Mendelisham, Ipm., 
p. 8. D.B. has the forms Melnessam, p. 10; Munlesham, p. 11 ; 
Mundlesham, same page. The variation of the vowel, from e 
to u, suggests that the original form had the A.S. y, and that 
the prefix represents an A.S. *Myndel, formed from an earlier 
^Mund-il, due to adding the dimin. suffix -il to the A.S. Mund. 
Cf. G. milndel, a pupil. Both Mund and Munda occur as A.S. 
personal names. If this be right, the original sense was 
' Myudel's home ' or ' Myndel's enclosure.' And a possible 
sense of Mendham (above) is ' Mynda's home ' or ' Mynda's 
enclosure'; where *Mynda is from a stem *Mund-jon-, formed, 
in the usual way, as a weak masculine ; from the base Mund. 

Mettingham. E. by N. from Bimgay. Spelt Metiugham, 
H.R. ; R.B. ; Metingaham, D.B., p. 40. The last form implies 
' the home (or enclosure) of the sons of Ma3te ' ; supposing the 
A.S. adj. 7n(ete to be used as a proper name. The usual sense 
of m(^te is ' moderate, small, poor,' which would easily become 
an epithet and give a name. Cf. the form MiPtelm (for *MiSt- 
helm) in Birch, C.S., ii. 469, 1. 20. 


Needham. Spelt Nedham, H.R. Copinger also records 
the form Nedeham. Cf. A.S. mod, nied, need, necessity ; used 
in numerous compounds. The sense is 'a home in need,' a 
home which one is driven to occupy ; a place of refuge. 

Pakenham. Spelt Pakenham, Ipm.; Pachenham (with che 
for ke), D.B., p. 162. Also Pakenham, in a late copy of Bp 
Theodred's Will ; in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 514. The form implies 
an A.S. *Pacan, gen. of *Paca ; a name not otherwise known ; 
but also required to explain Pakefield. The sense is ' home 
(or enclosure) of Paca.' 

Parham. Spelt Parham, Ipm., p. 161 ; Perreham, D.B., 
pp. 9, 27. Copinger gives Parkham as a variant, which has 
the same sense. For park (F. 2)arc) goes back to a Teut. form 
*parr-uc {A.S. pearr-oc), where -uc is a dimin. suffix ; from an 
older form *parr, which doubtless meant ' an enclosure.' Cf. 
prov. E. par, an enclosed place for domestic animals ; from the 
verb parren, to enclose or bar in. The pp. parred, confined, 
occurs in 1400, and represents an unrecorded A.S. *pearran, 
or *parr{an, which I take to be a shortened form of A.S. 
sparrian, to bar in or fasten in with spars or bars. Thus 
Parham properly signifies ' an enclosure made with bars,' or 
' a railed-in enclosure.' See Park in my Etym. Diet. 

Kedisham. To the S. of Beccles. Spelt Redesham, Ipm. ; 
H.R. ; D.B., p. 111. Redes represents the A.S. Reades, gen. of 
Read, lit. ' red.' Though Read is not recorded as a personal 
name, it is very clearly implied in the A.S. Readingas (now 
Reading, Berks.), lit. ' sons of Read.' Indeed, the forms Read, 
Reade, Reid (all from A.S. Read) are still in common use as 
surnames. The sense is ' Read's home,' or ' Read's enclosure.' 

Rendham. To the N.W. of Saxmundham. Spelt Rend- 
ham, Ipm.; but Rindham, D.B., p. 127; Rindeham, D.B., p. 128; 
and Rimdham (for Rindham ?), D.B., p. 54. The A.S. rinde, 
the rind or bark of a tree, is here unsuitable. We should 
rather compare Rinde-ham with the A.S. hrinda, which occurs 
in the phrase " oth hrindan broc " in Birch, C.S., ii. 60 ; where 
broc means ' brook.' The sense of hrindan is not known ; if it 


is the gen. of Hrinda as a personal name, the sense of Rendham 
may have been ' Hrinda's home ' or ' enclosure.' But this must 
remain a conjecture. (There is a Norse female name Rindv, but 
the genitive is Rindar.) 

Rendlesham. Spelt Rendlesham, Ipm. ; D.B., p. 26. But 
the name is very old, and is explained by Beda, in his Eccle- 
siastical History, bk iii. ch. 22, where he speaks of " Rendlaes- 
ham, id est, mansio Rendili " ; so that the sense is ' Rendil's 
home.' Rendlaes is an old form of Rendles, the regular genitive 
of Rendil, which drops the * when the form is lengthened by a 

Rougham. To the E.S.E. of Bury, Spelt Rougham, Ipm. ; 
Ruhham, D.B., p. 163. We find on rinoan Jiammas, 'to the 
rough enclosures,' in Birch, C.S., ii. 492 ; where ruwan is the 
ace. pi. of the A.S. ruh, rough, uncultivated. Hence Ruh-ham 
here means 'rough or uncultivated enclosure.' 

Saxham. Spelt Saxham, Ipm. ; Saxam, D.B., p. 9 ; Saxham, 
D.B., p, 222. The prefix Sax- here represents the O. Merc. 
Saxan, gen. of Saxa (A.S. Seaxa), a personal name. The sense 
is ' Saxa's home,' or ' Saxa's enclosure.' The O. Norse Saxi is 
also common in place-names. 

Saxmundham. Spelt Saxmundeham, H.R.; Saxmondehayji, 
D.B., p. 116. An s has been dropped; the original form must 
have been Saxmundesbam, where Saxmundes is the gen. case 
of Saxmund, an 0. Merc. form. Though Saxmund is not in 
Searle's list, it is perfectly regular ; since Sax- is a common 
prefix, and -mund a common suffix. The sense is ' Saxmund's 
home ' or ' enclosure.' 

Shottisham. To the S.E. of Woodbridge ; the same name 
as Shottesham, Norfolk. Spelt Shotesham, Ipm. ; Scotesham, 
D.B., p. 75. The same prefix occurs in Scottes-healh, in Birch, 
C.S., iii. 240, 1. 2. Here Scottes is the gen. of Scot, used as a 
personal name, and pronounced Shot in later A.S., and still in 
use. Compare Shotley (Suff.), Shottesbrook (Berks.), &c. 
Whether this Scot is the same as the A.S. Scot, meaning 


(1) a Scot of Ireland, and (2) a Scot of Scotland, can hardly 
be determined. 

SoHAM. There is an Earl Soham, so called from the Earls 
of Norfolk; also a Monk Soham, called Soham Monachorum in 
Ipm., p. 295; so called because the Monks of Bury were patrons 
of the Rectory (Kirby). The same name as Soham in Cambs. 
Spelt Saham, Ipm., p. 218 ; R.B. ; H.R. ; D.B., p. 26 ; so that 
the represents, as usual, an A.S. d. And this Saham is short 
for Sag-ham, as shown by the variant form Saeg-ham, in a 
charter of the twelfth century; see Earle, Land Charters, p. 368, 
1. 8. I explain the A.S. sag as meaning ' a depression ' or 
' hollow ' ; from sigaii (pt. t. sag), to sink down. See my 
Place-Names of Cambs., p. 23. The sense is (probably) ' en- 
closure near a hollow.' 

SoMERSHAM. Spelt Somersham, Ipm. ; Sumersham, R.B. ; 
D.B., p. 247; Sumersam, D.B., p. 113. There is another 
Somersham in Hunts., which (in my Place-Naraes of Hunts.) 
I explain as 'summer's enclosure,' or 'enclosure for the summer.' 
The A.S. gen. sing, smneres is sometimes thus used adverbially, 
meaning ' in the summer.' 

South Elmham. See Elmham (above). 

Stonham. Stonham Aspall is to the N.E. of Needham 
Market. Near it are Earl Stonham, called Stonham Comitis 
in Ipm., with reference, says Kirby, to Thomas Brotherton, Earl 
of Norfolk ; and Little Stonham or Stonham Parva, also called 
Stonham Jerningham, from the family of that name. Stonham 
Aspall is so named from the family of that name, but the family 
was named alter the place called Aspall (above). Perhaps it 
is worth while to note that the surname Jerningham is an 
example of attempting to give an English look to a French 
name. As Bardsley points out, the original form was Gernagan; 
which, with an initial J for G, became Jernagan. Then the 
suffix -agan was "Englished" by turning it into -ingham, which 
is so common an ending in English place-names. All the same, 
the initial J is quite enough to detect its French origin. 


Stonluim is spelt Stcmham in Iprn., R.B., H.R., and in D.B,, 
p. 140. All from the A.S. stan, a stone. It meant ' stone 
enclosure,' with reference either to a wall or to st(my soil; we 
can hardly say which. 

Syleham. On tlie Waveney ; N.VV. of Wingficld. Spelt 
Silham, H.R. ; also in a late copy of Bp Theodred's Will, in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 513; Seilam, D.B., p. 298. Copinger 
also notes the spelling Sulham. The vowels y, i, a, and e 
(wrongly ei in D.B.) all point back to an A.S. y\ and the 
etymology (like that of Sulhamstead in Berks.) is from the A.S. 
sylu, a miry place. The sense is ' enclosure in (or near) a miry 

Thelnetham. On the Little Ouse, to the N.W. of Botes- 
dale. There is some strange mystery about this name and 
that of Whelnetham. In both cases, there is evidence that 
the n is unoriginal, and has taken the place of a v. In the 
present case, the spellings are : Telneteluivi or TelueteJiam, D.B., 
p. 21; Thelueteham, D.B., p. 94; Teluetteham, D.B., p. 148; 
Teolftham, D.B., p. 172. The last of these is very striking; 
it is impossible that / should be miswritten for n ; it must 
rather refer to a sound related to v. It should also be noticed 
that there is a Thelveton in Norfolk, and that Copinger notes 
the spelling Telvetham. For further discussion of this difficult 
name, see under Whelnetham. 

Thornham. Spelt Thornham, H.R., Ipm., R.B. ; Tornham 
(with T for Th\ D.B., p. 10; Thornham, D.B., pp. 80, 83. 
Also Thornham in an A.S. charter; Kemble, CD., iv. 110, 1. 2. 
Kemble's index also has Thornhwma die, with reference to 
Worcs. ; where the w shows that, in some instances, the word 
was Thornham, with long a. This gives the sense ' Thorn- 
home ' ; or a dwelling-place near thorn-trees. The sense ' thorn- 
enclosure ' is also admissible, and may here be meant. 

TuDDENHAM. There are two places of this name ; Tudden- 
ham St Martin, near Ipswich, and Tuddenham St Mary, near 
Mildenhall (Kelly). Spelt Tudenham, H.R.; T.N.; D.B., p. 25 


Tudeham, R.B.; D.B., p. 823. Tuddenham near Mildenhall 
appears in an A.S. charter, dated 854, as Tuddan ham; Birch, 
C.S., ii. 81 ; the a being marked as long. The sense is ' Tudda s 
home,' Tudda is a known name. 

Walsham, or Walsham-le- Willows. To the E. of Ix- 
worth. N. and S. Walsham are in Norfolk. The A.F. le was, 
no doubt, believed to be the definite article at an early date ; 
but it is clear that it had originally the form les (as in French) 
and was a preposition, meaning 'near'; being derived from the 
Lat. latus, side ; whence the sense of ' beside.' We find Wales- 
ham, R.B., T.N.; Walsam, D.B., p. 94. Kemble's index has 
Wales-ho, Wiales-flet, and Weales-hic6 ; so that the most 
probable original form (as indicated by Wales-ham in R.B. 
and T.N.) was Weales-hdm (or -hamm). Weales is the gen. 
of Wealh, ' a stranger, a foreigner,' usually ' a Briton.' The 
sense is ' stranger's home,' or ' stranger's enclosure, near the 

Wattisham. Near Bildeston. Spelt Watesham, R.B, 
Copinger also notes the forms Wathesham, Wathisham, evi- 
dently with A.F. th for t; also Wachesham, Wachisham, with 
th miswritten as ch. All the forms are equivalent, and can 
be reduced to Watesham ; and there is no evidence to connect 
this immediately with the prefix in Wattisfield (above). 
The form Wates requires an A.S. nom. Wcet ; and though 
we have no record of this except in Latin, we find the allied 
weak masc. Wata, and the dimin, Wwtel, as in Watling Street, 
and in Wattisfield, The sense is ' Wast's home ' or ' Wset's 
enclosure.' The Latinised form is Wattus, spelt " Uuattus 
rex" in Birch, C.S., i, 113. 

Wenham. Great Wenhaim was also known as Brent Wen- 
ham, i.e. Burnt Wenham ; also called Wenham Gombusta, Ipm., 
p. 93. Little Wenham is two miles S.E. of Raydon station 
(Kelly). Spelt Wenham, H.R. ; T.N. ; D.B., p. 29. We find 
"terram de Wenintone" in Birch, C.S., iii. 281 (no. 1061). 
Here Wenin is for Wenan, gen. case of a personal name Wena, 


not otherwise known, though the compounds Wenburh iuid 
Wenbeorht occur. The sense is ' Weua's home ' or ' ench)sure.' 

WheLNETHAM. Great and Little Whehietham lie to the 
S.E. of Bury. Here, as in the case of Thelnetham, we have 
evidence that the n is uncniginal. In D.B. we find the extra- 
ordinary form HueljiJiain, p. 165. . In Ipni., p. 116 (no. 89), 
we find Parva WhelnethciDi ; but at p. 24"J (no. 34), the same 
place is referred to as Whelwitham, which looks like the original 
from which Hiielfiham was made, by the turning of an E. w 
into a Norman v (here written as/). It is clear that Thelnet- 
ham and Whelnetham must be explained together. I can only 
guess at this riddle, and the theory I propose is the following, 
viz. that there were already, before the Conquest, two places in 
Suffolk named Witham (probably contracted from an earlier 
Witanham or ' home of Wita'); and that these places (which 
are little more than 15 miles apart) were distinguished by 
the prefixes Thel- and Hwel (= Hweol). They thus became, 
respectively, Thelwitham and Whelwitham ; or, with v for w, 
Thelvithan and Whelvitham ; or, in the spelling of D.B., Teol- 
f{i)thain and Huelfi{t)hain. How the sound of v was afterwards 
exchanged for that of n in both cases (showing that they 
certainly affected each other), it is hard to say ; but we have 
positive evidence that such a change really took place. It 
remains to explain the prefixes Thel- and Hwel-. Thel is the 
A.S. thel, a plank, particularly one used to form a wooden 
bridge over a stream, as in the case of Theale (Berks.) and 
of Thelbridge (Devon). Hwel- is the A.S. hiueol, mod. E. wheel. 
The A.S. hweol is also used in the sense of ' circle,' and may 
denote that this Witham was of circular form. This is the 
best I can make of this extraordinary pair of names, both of 
which present very unusual features. I am informed that, not 
long since, the pronunciation of the latter place was Wheltham, 
a shortened form which ignored the middle syllable. 

Wickham Market. Spelt Wichant, R.B. ; D.B., p. 11 ; 
Wycham, H.R. ; Wiccham, D.B., p. 10 ; Wikham, p. 26. The 
A.S. form is Ww-ha7n ; see Kemble, CD., vi. 98, 1. 6. From A.S. 
wic, a village ; and ham, a home. The a was long, because we 


find W'lc-hwma in Kemble, v. 243, 1. 8. The sense is ' village- 
home.' But there was also a Wic-hamm, or ' village-enclosure ' ; 
Birch, C.S., iii. 610. 

WiCKHAMBROOK. The same as the above; with the addition 
of bj'uok, A.S. broc. There is also a Wickham SkeitS, near 
Finningham; from the family name Skeith, which is obviously 
of Norse origin. The Icel. skeith means a space, a certain 
length in a course; and Vigfusson notes that it occurs in place- 

Willingham. Spelt Wilingham, T.N. ; Willing aham, D.B., 
pp. 6, 109, which may be the original form. If it be so, the 
sense is ' home (or enclosure) of the Willings,' or ' of the sons 
of Willa.' Willa is a known name. But Willingham in Cambs. 
is differently spelt in D.B., and means ' home of the Wifelings,' 
or ' of the sons of Wifel.' 

WiLLiSHAM. Spelt Wylavesham, Ipm. ; Willauesham, T.N. ; 
Wylevjesham, H.R.; Willaluesham (error for Willauesham), D.B., 
p. 141. Also Willauesham in Leofgifu's Will (a.d. 1045); in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 570. All from Willaues, representing 
the A.S. Wigldfes, or Wildfes, gen. of Wigldf or WUaf, a well- 
known name. The g is here a mere glide, and the difference 
in sound between the two forms was very slight in late A.S. 
The name Wtglaf occurs in Beowulf, 11. 2602, 2631, 2745. The 
sense is ' Wiglaf's home.' 

Witnesham. Near Ipswich. Spelt Witnesham, Ipm., p. 241, 
col. 1 ; Witlesham, col. 2. But Copinger also gives such forms 
as Wittelesham, Wyttylisham, answering to Wittlesham in D.B., 
p. 294; so that the n was once I. The change is not uncommon. 
Further, Copinger gives the form Whitnesham, with initial Wh; 
and a comparison with Whittlesford (Cambs.) and Whittlesea 
(Cambs.) tends to confirm this. I would therefore explain it 
from the name *HwUel, the only original form w^hich will 
explain those names, being itself a derivative from Hwit, i.e. 
white. Thus the original sense was, probably, ' Hwitel's home ' 
or ' Hwitel's enclosure.' 


WoRLiNGHAM. Spelt Werlinghani, H.R.; T.N. ; Warlinga- 
ham, D.B., p. 253 ; WerlingaJiam, D.B., p. 4. In Birch, C.S., ii. 
295, 1. 5 from bottom, we find "werseles wellae," suggesting that 
there was once a name spelt Wersel, equivalent to Werel, whence 
a derivative Werling (shortened from Wereling) would easily 
result. However, it seems safe to explain the above name as 
meaning 'home (or enclosure) of the Werlings'; which may 
have meant 'sons of Werel.' The prefixes in Worlingham, 
Worlington, and Worlingworth are all different. 

WouTHAM. So in T.N. ; spelt Wordham (with d for th) in 
D.B., p. 80 ; Wortham, D.B., pp. 84, 148. Spelt Wrtham (for 
Wurthaiii) in Kemble, CD., iv. 293. From A.S. luorth, an 
enclosed homestead ; and (probably) haniut, an enclosure ; the 
compound having the sense of ' farm-enclosure.' See Bosworth 
and Toller's A.S. Diet., p. 1267. 

Wrentham. To the N. of Southwold. Spelt Wrentham, 
Ipm.; H.R.; Wretham (probably an error for Wretham= Wrent- 
ham), D.B., p. 237. Copinger also gives the form Wrantham. 
Not A.S., but Friesic. Koolman gives the E. Friesic wranten, 
to grumble, and ivrante, sb., a grumbler. Hexham's Mid. Dutch 
Diet, has tvranten, to wrangle, to quarrel, or to chide ; and wrant, 
a wrangling, or a quarrelsome man. Outzen gives the N. Fries. 
wrante, to whimper ; cf Dan. vrante, to be peevish. From the 
base wrant would be formed an A.S. ^wrantian, *wrentan, to 
grumble ; and hence *iurenta, a grumbler, which could be used 
as a nick-name. Hence Wrentham would mean ' Wrenta's 
home ' or ' Wrenta's enclosure.' 

24. Haugh. 

The mod. E. haugh is from the O. Merc, halh, A.S. healh, 
a sheltered place, hence, low-lying land beside a stream; as has 
already been explained under Hale, which is, grammatically, 
the dat. case of haugh. The sole example is Pettaugh. 

Pettaugh. To the S. of Debenham. Spelt Pethage, T.N.; 
Pethagh, Ipm. ; Petehaga, D.B., p. 194 ; Pettehaga, D.B., p. 320. 
Copinger also notes the forms Pethaugh and Pethale, which are 
important as showing that we are here dealing with haugh and 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. o 


hale, not with hem, a hedge; though the spelling Fethaiue 
occurs also. The forms in D.B. show four syllables, so that 
the word is not a mere compound with pet, 'a pit.' The prefix 
Pete- represents the A.S. Peotan, gen. of Peota, which occurs 
in a Worcester charter dated 851, as the name of a witness ; 
see Birch, C.S., ii. 56. I explain Pettaugh as ' Peota's haugh ' ; 
or rather (with a simple vowel) as ' Peta's haugh.' And see 

25. Heath. 
The mod. E. heath appears in A.S. as hwth. There are 
three places that end in -heath at the present day, but in only 
one of these, viz. Leavenheath, is the suffix original. The other 
two are Horningsheath and Lakenheath. But I shall take all 
three together, for practical convenience. 

Horningsheath. Near Bury. Often called Horringer, 
and marked as Horningsheath or Horringer on Bacon's map. 
This remarkable variation is due to the fact that the suffix 
-heath was substituted, at an early date, for another suffix that 
contained -er-, which is even now not quite forgotten. Spelt 
Horning esherth, H.R.; Ipm. Copinger records numerous forms, 
but in all of them the prefix is equivalent to Horninges ; whilst 
the old suffix appears as herih (once harth), erth, herde, herd, 
erda, erd ; and (by mistake) as worda. D.B. has Horningesworda, 
p. 152, and Horningeserda, p. 222, with the usual Norman 
neglect of initial h, and change of th to d. The suffix repre- 
sented by the Middle English herth (whence the other forms 
result) is the A.S. lieorth, mod. E. hearth, which was sometimes, 
though rarely, used to denote 'a dwelling,' or 'house'; see the 
A.S. Diet. The original sense was ' Horning's hearth,' which 
was afterwards turned into ' Horning's heath,' Horning means 
'son of Horn,' which is a known personal name. The form 
' Horningges ha^S,' i.e. Horning's heath, occurs in a late copy of 
Bp Theodred's Will ; in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 514. But this 
copy abounds in quite late spellings, so that it proves but little. 

Lakenheath. Spelt Lakingheth, H.R.; Lakinghethe, H.R.; 
Lakenham (by some mistake), T.N.; Lakingahethe, D.B., p. 223 ; 


Lal'inrjh lithe, Ipm., p. 24 ; Lakinghith, Ipm., p. 221. Also 
Lacinga-hi^, Birch, C.S., ii. 567 ; Lakinghe^e, Kemble, CD,, 
iv. 18, 1. 7 ; Lakijnge-hJ^e, Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 308, 1. 4. 
The spellings huthe, hythe are absolutely inconsistent with 
' heath,' and can only represent the A.S. hyth (dat. hythe), a 
hithe, a landing-place. The prefix Lacinga is the gen. pi. 
of Lacing, which is not a patronymic (as in the case of 
Lockinge, Berks., where the form is Lacing, with long a), 
but a derivative from the A.S. lacu, a stream ; see Earle, Land 
Charters, p. 465. Lacing meant ' a stream-dweller,' or dweller 
beside a stream, viz. a southern affluent of the Little Ouse, 
at a time before the present lodes or drains were made. The 
sense is ' hithe of the dwellers beside the stream.' Lakenheath 
had much more water near it in early days than it has now. 
At a later period, the suffix hithe was exchanged for heath. 

Leavenheath. To the N.W. of Nayland. Copinger gives, 
without references, the old spellings Levenesheath, Levenes- 
heth, Leveney. Here Levenes is certainly a late form of 
Leo/wines, gen. of Leofiuine, an extremely common name 
(whence our modern Levin, Lewin, &c.). Kemble has Leof- 
wines dene, Cod. Dipl. iv. 68. The sense is ' Leofwine's heath.' 

26. Hill. 

A well-known suffix. The A.S. form was hylle, whence the 
varying Mid. English forms hille, helle, hulle, hylle. 
There is but one example, viz. Haverhill. 

Haverhill. Spelt Hauerhill, H.R. ; T.N. ; Haverhulle, 
Ipm. ; Haverhille, Ipm. ; Hauerhella, D.B., p. 185. Not from 
haver, ' oats,' because that word is unknown in English till 
after 1300; but from A.S. hoifer, a he-goat. The sense is 
' goat hill.' 

27. Hithe. 

From the A.S. hy^ (gen. and dat. hy^e), a hithe, a landing- 
place, a haven. The only apparent example is Covehithe ; but 
Lakenheath was once Lakenhithe, as shown above. 



COVEHITHE. Near the coast, to the N. of Southwold. The 
village is a little way inland. The hithe must have been where 
Covehithe Broad now appears on the ordnance map. The sense 
is ' cove-hithe,' or ' cove-landing-place.' See Cove. 

According to Copinger, Covehithe is the place sometimes 
alluded to by the name of North Hales. North refers to its 
position as regards South Cove, which is not far off. Hales 
is an old word, now obsolete, in use in English from 1330 to 
1606, meaning ' tents, booths, huts, or temporary structures'; 
from the Old French hale, mod. F. halle, a covered market- 
place ; from the 0. High German halla, which is cognate with 
E, hall. It occurs in D.B., p. 15, ill spelt as Northals, as a 
solitary example of the use of the O. Fr. hales, long before its 
general introduction into English. 

28. Hoe, or Hoo. 

The A.S. hoh signities ' the heel,' and is the parent of the 
modern E. hough and hock; but it is also common in place- 
names, with the sense of ' spur of a hill ' or ' projection on a 
hill-side.' With loss of the final li, and change of the A.S. o 
into 00 (as in A.S. col, mod. E. cool), it has become Hoo. Some- 
times it appears as Hoe or Ho, which preserves an older 
pronunciation. It appears in the name Hoo ; and as a suffix 
in Culpho, Dallinghoo, and Wixoe. The suffix in Thingoe is 

Hoo. To the S.W. of Framlingham. Spelt Hoe, T.N. ; 
Hou, R.B.; D.B., p. 74; Hov (for Hou), D.B., p. 215. The 
spellings Ho, Hor/h, Hohg, occur in Kemble's index, with 
reference to Hoo in Kent ; and Hohg, with reference to Hoo, 
Suff. From the A.S. hoh, 'spur of a hill,' as said above. The 
hill-spur, above the river Deben, is clearly shown in the 
ordnance map by the contour-line marked 100. 

Culpho. To the N.E. of Ipswich. Spelt Culpho, H.R. ; 
T.N. ; Culphowe, R.B. Also Culfho, H.R. ; R.B. ; Culfo, T.N. ; 
Quilfo, T.N. D.B. has Culfole, Gulfola, p. 131 ; where perhaps 
the addition means ' lea.' The suffix is plainly the A.S. hoh, 


' spur of a hill ' ; it is on high ground. The original prefix 
seems to have been Gulf; and Gulfo (for Gidf-hd) was respelt, 
with a Norman p/< for /. Gimlf is noticed by Searle as oc- 
curring in Ellis's lists of land-owners and tenants in D.B., so 
that it is a late form, and a manifest contraction for the very 
common name Guthwulf, also Guthulf, in which the th would 
readily disappear. The gen. -es is also lost, as is not un- 
common in early names. There can hardly be a doubt that 
the name meant ' Ciithwulf's hoh,' or a hill-spur named after a 

Dallinghoo. Between Ipswich and Framlinghf\m. Spelt 
Dallingahou, D.B., p. 27 ; Dalingahou, D.B., p. 90 ; Daliiigeho, 
in the Crawford Charters, ed. Napier and Stevenson, p. 33, 1. 2. 
For A.S. Dalinga hoh, ' hill-spur of the Dalings.' I understand 
Dalings to mean dal-ings, or dalemen, or ' dwellers in a dale ' ; 
just as Centingas means Kent-ings, or men of Kent. We may 
suppose them to have moved uphill out of a valley. 

Thingoe. Not the name of an existing village, but of a 
hundred ; a fact which suits the name. Spelt Thinglioive, H.R, 
D.B. has TJiingehov, p. 221 ; Tinchou, p. 18 ; and Thingohov, 
p. 202 (with needless repetition). Also Thinghowe; in Thorpe, 
Diplomat, p. 418. 

The suffix has evidently been assimilated to that in Culpho, 
Dallinghoo, and Wixoe. But the spelling hoiue (in H.R. and 
Thorpe) suggests that it was once the prov. E. how, howe, a 
small detached hill or mound, from the Icel. haugr, a mound. 
The prefix Thing, from the A.S. thing, 0. Norse thing, meant 
' an assembly, a meeting for consultation or deliberation,' a 
meeting of the men of the hundred ; so that the sense is 
' meeting-mound.' In Gage's Suffolk, p. x, it is said that the 
Thing-how was an 'aceruus' or artificial mound just outside 
the North gate of Bur3^ 

Wixoe, or Whixoe. On the Stour, to the S.E. of Haver- 
hill. Spelt Wixoe in Bacon's map, but Whixoe in his index. 
Spelt F^Yes^^eoM(!), D.B., p. 267; Wydekesho, R.R.; T.N. The 
prefix answers to the A.S. Hvnttuces, which occurs in Hiuit- 
tuces hlcewe; in Birch, C.S., iii. 70, 1. 11. Hwittuc is a 


diminutive from HwUa, lit. ' white one,' from hivit, white. 

The sense is ' Hwittuc's hill-spur.' The shape of the hill 

can be traced on the ordnance map by help of the contour- 
line marked 200. 

29. Holt. 

The A.S. and mod. E. holt means a small wood or copse. 
It occurs in Bergholt, Occold, Ramsholt, and Southolt. 

East Bergholt. Near the mouth of the Stour. Spelt 
Berkholt, H.R. ; Bergholte, Ipm.; Bercolt, T.N. ; D.B., p. 13. 
Copinger gives five other forms beginning with Berc- or Berk- ; 
and one example of Bircholt. The prefix is certainly the O. 
Merc, here, A.S. heorc, a birch ; and the sense is ' birch-copse.' 
The modern form is not a happy one. 

Occold. Near Eye. Formerly Occolt, which is a better 
spelling. Spelt Acolt, D.B., p. 10; for Acholt. Spelt Acholt, 
in Kemble, CD., iv. 245 ; for A.S. dc-holt ; from ac, an oak. 
The sense is ' oak-copse.' 

Ramsholt. S.S.E. of Woodbridge. Spelt Ramisholt, Ipm.; 
Rammesholt, D.B., p. 76. Apparently ' Ram's holt ' ; Ram or 
Ramm might be a personal name. More probably, as in 
Ramsey, it stands for the A.S. hrcem, variant of hrcemn, a 
raven ; and the sense was ' Raven's holt.' Raven could also 
be a personal name. 

Southolt. The sense is ' south copse.' 

30. Hurst. 

A hu7'st means ' a wooded eminence,' or ' a small wood.' It 
occurs, much disguised, in Hartest. The A.S. form is hyrst 

Hartest. N.N.W. of Long Melford. Spelt Hertherste, 
Ipm. ; Hertherst, T.N. ; Herterst, D.B., p. 224 ; ill spelt Hertest, 
D.B., p. 203; and in a late copy of a charter, in Kemble, CD., 
iv. 245. Also Harthurst, Herthurst (Copinger). The sense is 
' harthurst.' 


31. -ING. 

In the case of Ingham, the prefix is Norse, and means ' a 
meadow ' ; but there is no other example of it in Suffolk. As 
a suffix, it occurs, in this county, only as a patronymic, or with 
the signification of 'dweller in' or 'dweller near'; for which 
see Blything. In the plural, it refers to a tribe or family. 
It occurs in Ash Booking, Barking, Bealings, Blything, Cowl- 
inge. Greeting, Exning, Gedding, Gipping, Milden, Nedging, 
Shimpling, Sweffling, Thredling, Wratting. 

ASHBOCKING or Ash Booking. E. of Needham Market. 
The prefix Ash merely means ' ash-tree ' ; but the place was 
often called Ash simply, in olden times ; and D.B. has Essa, 
p. 9 ; which is a Latinised form of Esse ; and Esse is the 
Norman spelling of A.S. cesce, dat. of cesc, an ash. It was 
afterwards called Ash Booking, because it was in the possession 
of the Booking family for some centuries (Kelly). This family 
had its name from Booking in Essex; called 'aet Boccinge,' in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 539. And Boccing here meant, originally, 
' a son of Bocc' Bocc occurs in Bocches-hale (for Bocceshale), 
in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 583, note 3. 

Barking. The same as Barking in Essex ; which is spelt 
Berking in Ipm., p. 100. The Suffolk Barking was also for- 
merly Berking (Copinger). Spelt Berchingas, nom, pi., in D.B., 
p. 204 ; Beorcingan, dat. pi. (for Beorcingum), in Birch, CD., 
iii. 602. As the A.S. beoix means ' birch-tree,' and does not 
appear as a proper name, we may explain Beorcingas, nom. pi., 
to mean 'dwellers beside a birch-tree or birch-grove.' Note 
that Berking is from the O. Merc, form berc rather than the 
A.S. beorc. 

Bealings. Great Bealings and Little Bealings are near 
Woodbridge. Spelt Beling, T.N. ; Belinges, H.R. ; D.B., p. 70 ; 
Belings, Ipm. The name Beola is noted by Searle as being 
that of a moneyer, in the time of Cnut, but I suspect that the 
name was Norse ; from Bele or Beli, a name which occurs 
several times in the Edda. In any case, we may explain 
Belinges (for A.S. *Belingas or *Beolingas) as a tribal name. 


Blything. The name of a hundred. Spelt Blidinga (with 
d for S), D.B., p. 3. Blything is a hundred on the E. coast, 
containing Southwold and Dunwich, and the river Blythe flows 
through tlie midst of it. The river-name (meaning 'blithe' or 
'pleasant') is an old one, and another river of the same name 
is mentioned in a Northants. charter, dated 944 ; see Earle, 
Land Charters, p. 179, 1. 3. I understand Blithinga, gen. pi., 
to be the gen. of Blithingas, or ' the dwellers beside the Blythe.' 

CowLiNGE. N.N.E. of Haverhill. Spelt Culing, B..U.: Gul- 
inges, T.N., Ipm.; Cvlinge, D.B., p. 24. It evidently represents 
an A.S. Culinga, gen. pi. (as in Culinga gemsere, Birch, C.S., 
i. 318); and ' Gules feUV occurs in a Hants, charter, dated 909, 
in Birch, C.S., ii. 284. Hence the Culingas were 'the sons of 
Cril.' It seems to be not quite the same name as Cowling 
in the W. Riding of Yks., which refers to ' the sons of Coll ' ; 
as Prof. Moorman shows. The form Gidinges in T.N. repre- 
sents the nom. pi. Ciilingas. 

Creeting. West Creeting and Creeting St Mary lie to 
the N. of Needham Market. Spelt Gretinges, T.N. ; Greting, 
H.R. ; Gretinge, R.B., Ipm. But D.B. has Gratingas, p. 22 ; 
Gratinga, p. 47 ; in Gratingis, p. 48. Probably fiom the A.S. 
Gretta, a name of which two instances are known. Creeting 
may represent a gen. pi. Grettinga ; and the nora. Grettingas 
means ' the sons of Cretta,' or ' the family of Cretta.' 

ExNiNG. To the N.W. of Newmarket. The spelling I wning 
is commoner, at an early date ; and the place was once con- 
sidered to be in Cambridgeshire, as its position suggests. 
Spelt Ixninge, locnynge, and even Ixningliam, Ipm. ; Ixninges, 
R.B.; Yxninge, R.B.; Ixnwg and Exning, H.R.; Ixning, Yxning, 
T.N. No doubt the prefix is related to that of Ixworth, which 
is also in Suffolk ; and the latter is known. Ixworth appears 
in a very late charter (no. 1019) as Ixeworthe ; and in another 
(no. 1018) as Gyxeweorde (with d for tS); both in Birch, iii. 219. 
But Gyxe- stands for Gixe-, with i, not y; because before y a G 
remains hard, whilst before i it disappears. And Gixe is a very 
late form of the true gen. Gixan, from a nom. Gixa. It is now 


clear that Ixning was a later form of Gixan-ing', or rather of 
the gen. pi. Gixaninga; which meant 'of or belonging to the 
Gixanings ' or * of the sons (or family) of Gixa.' Note parti- 
ciihirly the spelling Ixenyng in Ipm. (Index Nominum). The 
longer form Ixningham is quite legitimate; it means 'home (or 
enclosure) of the Gixanings.' Gixa = Gisca ; see IxwoRTH. 

Gedding. Spelt Geddinge, Geddinges, R.B. But also 
known as Giddiug, in which form it appears in Pigot's Atlas, 
1831. Spelt Oedinga, D.B., p. 235 ; Geldinga (error for Gedd- 
inga), D.B., p. 165. In Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 526, Giddincg- 
forda (dat.) is mentioned in connexion with Kersey and Hadley, 
and must refer to Gedding. Note that in Ipm., p. 48, Geddinge 
refers to Gedding (Suff.) ; whilst in the same, p. 25, Gedding 
refers to Gidding (Hunts.). The phonology is not difficult. 
Both these places really had once the same name, and this 
name must have begun with an A.S. Gy, as otherwise the G 
would not have remained hard. This Gy is often spelt Gi 
in later times, and it often iippears as Ge (with hard g) 
dialecticall}^ It is therefore certain that Gedding once referred 
to a settlement of ' the sons of Gydda.' The personal name 
Gydda occurs in Gyddan-den ; in Kemble, CD., v. 289. 

GiPPiNG. About 2^ miles E. by N. from Haughley railway 
station ; a small hamlet. I find no old spelling, but Copinger 
records Gipping, Gypping, Gippyngge, and Gyppinges ; all un- 
dated. There is also a river Gipping, and I have seen it 
suggested that Ipswich (formerly Gippes wic) took its name 
from the river! But I presume that the G in Gipping is hard, 
and therefore wholly unconnected with the A.S. Gippes, in 
which the G was sounded like the y in yield. The map shows 
that the river Gipping, before it joins another stream above 
Stowmarket, comes down from the direction of Gipping, and 
whilst still small, flows past the end of Gipping Great Wood. 
It is therefore fairly certain that the river took its name from 
the place, and not otherwise ; just as the Deben comes from 
the neighbourhood of Deben ham. I suppose that the oldest 
spelling was Gypping, and that it represents a tribal name, 
from a personal name Gypp or Gyppa ; but of such names 


no trace seems to exist, unless we can compare Geppa (twice) 
in Searle's list. 

MiLDEN. Called Milding* by Kirby (1764). S.W. of 
Bildeston. This must be included among the names in -ing, 
on account of the older forms. Spelt Meldinge, Ipm., p. 198 ; 
Mellinga, D.B., 159 ; Mildinges, F.A., v. 43. I find no other 
old spelling ; but Copinger recites some seventeen, of which 
all but two end in -ing, -ingg, -inge, -ingge, or -yng, -yngg, 
-inga. Eleven of them begin with Me- ; so that the oldest 
type seems to be Meldinga, which we may associate with the 
personal name Melda, whence are derived the names Meldreth 
and Melbourn, both in Cambs. The gen. pi. Meldinga refers 
to a settlement of ' the sons (or family) of Melda.' 

Nedging. Near Bildeston. Spelt Nedding, H.R. ; Nedd- 
inge, R.B. ; so that the sound of dg is unoriginal. D.B. has 
Niedinga, p. 209. In a Suffolk charter relating particularly 
to Cockfield, in Birch, C.S., iii. 603, 1. 3, we find " cet {H)nydd- 
inge," which Kemble and Thorpe explain as Nedging, with 
obvious correctness. This furnishes another instance in which 
the A.S. y is locally rendered by e. The initial H is printed by 
Birch between two marks, to show that it has been supplied 
afterwards. We also find Neddinge in a late copy of a charter 
in Kemble, CD., iv. 245 ; it is of no great value. The evidence 
shows that the name refers to a settlement of Hnyddings or of 
Nyddings ; but there is nothing to help us any further.' In 
the form Neddinge, the final -ge must have been palatalised, 
or sounded as j, giving Neddinj ; after which the J-sound was 
passed back into the former syllable, and so it became Nedjing, 
or Nedging. 

Shimpling. To the W. of Lavenham. There is another 
Shimpling in Norfolk. Kelly says it is also known as Shim- 
plingthorne ; where ' thorne ' is the mod. E. ' thorn.' Spelt 
Simpling,T.'M.; Shimpling, Ipm.; Simplinga, D.B., p. 270 (with 
Norman 8 for A.S. Sc) ; Scimpling, H.R. The A.S. form must 
have been Scimplinga, or settlement ' of the Scimplings,' mod. 
E. Shimplings ; i.e. ' of the sons of Scimpel,' mod, E. Shimpel ; 


a name not recorded. But it probably meant 'jester'; cf. 
mod. Dii. schimpen, to scoff at. 

SwEFFLiNG or SwEFLiNG. Near Saxmundham. Spelt 
Sivifiinge, Ipm. ; Sueflinga, D.B., p. 35 ; Sueftlinga, D.B,, p. 34. 
A.S. Sueftlinges ; in the Crawford Charters, ed. Napier and 
Stevenson, p. 33, 1. 2. The name records a settlement ' of 
Sweftlings,' or ' of the sons of *Sweftel ' ; a name not otherwise 
known. Probably it was once *Sw}eftel ; and it may be allied 
to E, siuift. Kemble's index has Swiftan-beorh. 

Thredling. The name of a hundred. Spelt Tredelinge, 
Ipm. (with T for Th). I find no other old form; Copinger gives 
Thrydelingge, Thridelingge. There is no further clue. The e 
(i, y) may have been due to an A.S. y, as in other cases. It 
appears to refer to a settlement of *Thrydelings ; but no such 
form appears. Possibly for *Thrythhildings ; since Thrythhild 
is a known female name. 

Wratting. Spelt Wratting in T.N. ; Wrotinge, R.B. ; 
Wratinga, D.B., p. 220. The same name as Wratting in 
Cambs., which appears as A.S. Wrcettincge in the dat. case, 
in vElfhelm's Will ; see Birch, C.S., iii. 629 ; also Wrcattinge, 
on the preceding page. The reference is to a tribe of Wrsettings 
or to a man named Wrsetting. A man may have been so named 
from a wart upon his face ; since ivret was the E. Anglian form 
of wart in the fifteenth century (Prompt. Parv.). Cf. Du. wrat, 
a wart. 

32. Land. 

Land is well knoAvn in mod. E., A.S., and Old Norse. It 
means tract of country, region, &c. It occurs in Kessingland, 
Lothingland, Nayland, Shelland, and Swilland. 

Kessingland. On the E. coast; S. of Lowestoft. Spelt 
Kessinglond, H.R. ; Ipm. ; Kessingland, T.N. ; Kessingekinda, 
D.B., p. 5. But the A.S. form could not have begun with Ce, 
or the C would have become Ch; and we find, in fact, the alter- 
native spelling Cassingland. It is twice spelt Cassingland in 
Ipm., p. 55 ; and Copinger quotes six examples in which the 


name begins with Cass-. It therefore probably has the same 
prefix as Kasing-hurna; in Birch, i. 477. Cf. Casincg -street 
and Gasan-thorn in Kemble's index. The sense is therefore, 
in all probability, 'land of the Casings' or 'of the sons of 

LoTHiNGLAND. The name of a hundred. This hundred 
contains Lowestoft and Lake Lothing or Lothing Lake, from 
which the hundred took its name. The o was short, and must 
be the o which the Normans frequently substituted for short 
u ; cf the spellings Luddingland, Ipm. ; Ludingland, H.R. ; 
Luthingland, H.R. ; Ludingaland, D.B., p. 329. We also find 
Lii^inglond in a late copy of Bp Theodred's Will ; in Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 513. The full form was Luthinga-land, or ' land 
of the Luthings'; but we have no further information as to 
this tribe or family. The name may perhaps be connected 
with the personal name Luda, which occurs in Lvdan-heorh ; 
in Birch, C.S. iii. 204. 

Nayland. This is a very interesting name, as it is an 
example of a spelling in which a // has been prefixed. It is 
spelt Eylaiid, Eylaund, T.N. ; but Neyland in Ipm., p. 16 
(A.D. 1257); Neylond, H.R.; Eilanda, D.B., p. 242; rather 
from the O. Norse eyland, an island, than from the A.S. 
leg-land, %g-land, with the same sense. The situation of 
Nayland is low, and it is "subject to occasional inundations" ; 
see The Beauties of England, xiv. 158. Its river is the Stour. We 
can easily explain how the n was prefixed. It arose from the 
fact that there are two places in S.W. Suffolk called Stoke ; 
one was called Stoke-juxta-Clare, or Stoke near Clare, and the 
other Stoke near Eyland, described in 1327 (in the Index to 
the Charters) as Stoke-atte-Neilond, of which an older form 
must necessarily have been Stoke-atten-Eilond ; as the Mid. 
Eng. atten represents the A.S. cet thani, i.e. ' at the.' The date 
when the n was prefixed seems to have been somewhat earlier 
than A.D. 1250. Observe that the name is Norse. 

Shelland. To the W.N.W. of Stowmarket. Spelt Shel- 
laund, Shellonde, Ipm. ; Sellanda, D.B., p. 224 (with Norman S 
for A.S. Sc). I think the prefix was not the A.S. scell, ' a 


shell,' but see If, ' a. shelf; note Shelton, Beds., of which the 
A.S. form was Scelf-tim, and Shelley, Suff, (below), of which 
the A.S. form was Scelf-leah, affording good reason for the 
change from Ji to II. The sense is ' shelf-land,' which is pre- 
cisely the right sense. A shelf is a high terrace of land or 
ledge ; and Shelland Green is more than 200 feet above the 
sea-level. Cf Shelfhanger, Norf ; Shelve, Salop. 

SwiLLAND. N. of Ipswich, i^pelt Swynlaund, Ipm.; Swine- 
londe, R.B. ; Suinlanda, D.B., p. 291. From A.S. swin, swine; 
literally ' swine-land.' 

33. Ley. 

Ley is a common suffix in many counties and represents 
the A.S. leak, a lea, a meadow ; the sense is rather vague. It 
occurs in Badley, Bentley, Bradley, Brockley, Butley, Cookley, 
Eleigh, Gazeley, Hadleigh, Haughley, Hemley, Henley, Hol- 
lesley, Kirkley, Oakley, Otley, Shelley, Shotley, Sotterley, 
Trimley, Westley, and Yaxley ; twenty-two examples. 

Badley. Near Needham Market; westward. Spelt Badele, 
T.N. ; Badeir, Ipm.; Badelea, D.B., p. 9. For A.S. Badan- 
leah; cf Badan-pyt (Kemble); Badan-dene (Birch, C.S. i. 304). 
The sense is ' Bada's lea.' 

BENTLEY^ Spelt i?e//e^/e^y, T.N. ; Benetleye,Y{.'R., Benetleia, 
D.B., p. 13. The AS. form is Beonetleah (Kemble). The A.S. 
heonet, prov. E. hennet, means 'long coarse grass,' or 'bent-grass.' 
The sense is ' bentgrass lea.' See Bent in my Etym. Diet. 

Bradley. A common name. Spelt Bradeley, H.R. ; 
Bradeleye, Bradelegh, Ipm.; Bradeleia, D.B., p. 182. For A.S. 
brcidan leage; in Birch, C.S. iii. 29, which is a weak dative case. 
From A.S. brad, broad ; and leak. The sense is ' at the broad 
lea,' or simply ' broad lea.' 

Brockley. Spelt Brokley, B7-ockele, Ipm., p. 270; Brokle, 
D.B., p. 138; Broclega, D.B, p. 155. Cf A.S. Broc lea ford; 
Birch, C.S. iii. 288, 1. 7 from bottom. Either from A.S. hroc, a 
badger ; or from hroc, a brook ; the long o in the latter case 
would be shortened before cl. There is nothing to discriminate 


between the senses of ' badger lea ' and ' brook lea.' Pateley, 
in Yorks., means ' badger lea/ because the Yorks. pate means a 
oadger. This favours the former explanation. 

BuTLEY. Hence was named the Butley river, which joins 
the Ore, and flows into the sea near Hollesley. Spelt Buttele, 
T.N., Butelai, D.B., p. 27; Butelea, D.B., p. 94. The patro- 
nymic Butting occurs in Buttingc-graf ; Birch, C.S. i. 307, last 
line. The name Butti (also Botti) is Norse (Rygh). The 
sense is ' Butti's lea.' The gen. of Butti was Butta, which 
would give the Butte- in T.N., and the Bute- in D.B. 

CooKLEY. Near Halesworth. STpelt Gokeleye,il.^.; Gokelei, 
D.B., p. 106 ; Cukeleye, Ipm. The prefix seems to be the A.S. 
Cucan, gen. of Cuca; a name which appears in Cucanhealas 
(Birch, C.S. iii. 113) and in Cucandun (Birch, C.S. iii. 140). 
Thus the sense is ' Cuca's lea.' Prof. Moorman explains Cook- 
ridge, in the West Riding, in the same way. 

Eleigh. There is Monks' Eleigh (for which Copinger 
quotes lUea Monachorum), and Brent Eleigh (for which he 
quotes lUea Combusta, and Illegh Ars, where ars is Norman 
for 'burnt'). Spelt Illea -drs, H.R. ; llleya, H.R. ; Illeleia, 
D.B., p. 185. The A.S. form is Illan-leah, of which the dat. 
case Illan-lege occurs in Birch, C.S. iii. 602. The sense is 
' Ilia's lea.' But Ilsley (Berks.) has lost initial H, and stands 
for ' Hild's lea.' 

Gazeley. Otherwise Gaiesley ; as in Kirby. E. of New- 
market. Spelt Gasele, Gaisle, Gaysle, H.R. ; Gaysley, Ipm. ; 
Geisley, Ipm. The A.S. form would be *Ga?ges-leah. The 
name *Gseg is not found, but can be inferred from the patro- 
nymic Gwging, in Birch, C.S. iii. 257; whence, as I have shown, 
is derived the name of Ginge, in Berks. The weak form 
*Gsega appears as Gega in Geganden (Kemble), and as Gage 
in Gageleah (also Gagenleah), also in Kemble's Index ; also in 
Gaydon, Gayton and Gaywood in modern names. The sense is 
' Gseg's lea/ or in later spelling ' Gay's lea.' 

Hadleigh. Spelt Badlega, R.B. ; Badleigh, Ipm. ; Hced- 
leage, in a late charter, Thorpe, Diplomat. 527; Headlega, 


Annals of St Neot, (juoted in Phnnmer's ed. of the A.S. 
Chronicle, ii. 102; Hetlega, D.B., p. 184. In D.B. the t stands 
for th ; and the true A.S. form appears in a Worcs. charter, 
dated 849, as lice^leage (gen.) with reference to Headley Heath 
(a tautological name) in Birch, C.S. ii. 40 ; see Duignan, Place- 
names of Worcs. The sense is ' heath-lea.' In a similar way 
the A.S. S has become t in Hatfield (Herts.) which means 
' heath-field.' 

Haughley. Spelt Haiueleye, Ipm. ; Hagala, D.B., p. 256. 
The A.S. form is Hagan-leah, in a Wore, charter; in Birch, iii. 
587,1. 11 from bottom. The sense is 'haw-lea/ or 'enclosed 
lea.' The old spellings clearly connect the prefix with haw 
rather than the mod. E. haugh, O. Merc, halh, A.S. healh. 
Copinger gives many old forms, of which the most intelligible 
are Haghele, Haghle, Haghlegh, Halley, Haugle, Haule, 
Hawele, Hawelee, Hawelege, Hawleigh. 

Helmley. Near Waldringfield ; misprinted Henley in 
Bacon's map, though given as Hemley in the Index. (Henley 
is due N. of Ipswich.) Hemley is short for Helmley, Spelt 
Halmeleia, D.B., p. 138; Halmelega, p. 287; but Helmelea, 
p. 120. The A.S. form should be Helman-leah; compare 
Helmaii-hyrst in Kemble's index, p. 297, col. 2. The sense is 
' Helma's lea.' Helma is a pet name for a name beginning 
with Helm-, such as Helmbeald, Helmbeorht, &c. ; which are 

Henley. N. of Ipswich. Spelt Henleye, T.N.; Hanle, 
H.R. ; Henleia, D.B., p. 50. There are several places of this 
name, answering to A.S. Heanleage; in Birch, C.S. iii. 519; of 
which a later spelling is Henlea; in Birch, C.S. i. 64. This 
Heanleage is the dat. case of Heahleah, meaning ' high lea.' 

Hollesley. Near the mouth of the river Aide. Spelt 
Holesle, H.R. ; Holeslee, Ipm.; Holeslegh, Ipm.; Holeslea, D.B., 
p. 78. Lit. ' Hoi's lea.' The name Hoi does not appear by 
itself, but it occurs in the derivative Hol-ing, or ' son of Hoi,' 
in the A.S. Holinga human ; Kemble, CD. iv. 232 ; and in 
the modern names Hollingbourn, HoUington, and Holling- 


KiRKLEY ; forming part of Lowestoft. Spelt Kyrkele, H.R. ; 
Kirkelea, D.B., p. 5. The prefix is Norse ; from O.N. kirkja, a 
church. The sense is 'kirk-lea'; i.e. 'chnrch-lea.' 

Oakley. To the N. of Eye. Spelt Acle, R.B. ; D.B., 
p. 180. From A S. dc, an oak ; and leak. Lit. ' oak lea.' 
Written dc-lea; Birch, C.S. ii. 291. 

Otley. Spelt Oteleye, Ipm., H.R. ; Otteleye, H.R. ; Otelega, 
D.B., p. 133. The prefix is the same as in Otan-hyrst ; in 
Kemble's index. The sense is ' Ota's lea.' 

Shelley. Spelt Selleye, H.R. ; Selflega, T.N. ; Sceiieleia, 
D.B., pp. 13, 14. The A.S. dat. case is Scelfleage ; Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 52.5. The sense is 'shelf lea.' /S/ie//" may answer 
to the A.S. scylf, a crag, a rock, a tor; but the prov. E. shelf also 
means a shoal, a ford ; or sJielf may mean a high terrace or ledge, 

Shotley. Spelt Schottele, T.N. ; Scoteleia, D.B., p. 13. 
Apparently trisyllabic ; compare Scotehu, Scotta ^JceS, Scotta- 
7'%^, in Kemble's index. The sense is doubtful. I incline to 
consider it as containing the A.S. scot, a building, as in the 
compound sele-scot; and to look upon the original form as 
having been scota leak, ' lea of huts ' or of small buildings. 
Of. the M.Du. scJiot, 'a closure of boards,' in Hexham. See 
Scot in the A.S. Dictionary. The word sele-scot is rendered 
tahernaculum in Matt. xvii. 4 (Old Mercian Version) and in the 
Vespasian Psalter Ps. xiv. 1. 

Sotterley. Spelt Soterle, H.R. ; T.N. ; Ipm., p. 249 ; 
Soterleghe, R.B. ; Soterlega, D.B,, p. 41. The same old spelling 
of the prefix occurs in Sotet'ton, Ipm., p. 203, which represents 
Sutterton, Lines.; so that Sotterley might have become Sutterley. 
The meaning of the prefix in Sutterton is easily ascertained ; 
since v^^e find the spelling Sutterton in Birch, C.S. ii. 53, but 
Sutherton in the same, ii. 137. It thus appears that Sotter- 
has the same sense as the Souther- in Southerton, q.v. The 
sense is 'lea more to the south'; possibly because it is to the 
South of the Hundred River, but a mile away from it. 

N.B. Bjorkman notes a Norse name Sdti, O. Danish Soti, 
but the gen. is Sota, not Sotar ; so that it will not account for 
the prefix Setter- ; and still less for Sutter-. 


Trimley. Certainly for Tremley, with im for em, a common 
chaDge. Spelt Treinlye, Ipm.; Tremlega, D.B., p. 124; Treinelaia, 
D.B., p. 286. Copinger also records the forms Tremley, Tremleye, 
Tremele, Tremeley. The difficulty is to know whether the middle 
e in the last three forms is significant. Perhaps it is best so to 
consider it, as it is hard to see why it should have been inserted. 
I can only conjecture that it represents a form Treman, gen. of 
Trema, which is a variant of Tryma, with the Suffolk e for the 
A.S. y, as in a few other cases. Though Tryma does not occur, 
it is easily associated, as an agential masc. in -a, with trymian, 
trymman, also found as tremman, to confirm, strengthen, set in 
order; whence it might well become a name, as signifying 'one 
who strengthens.' The base Trum- appears in such names as 
Trum-beorht, Trum-here, &c. The A.S. trymian has given us 
the modern E. to trim. Trimley can hardly mean 'trim lea,' 
because this adjective is comparatively modern, and due to the 
old verb. Id fact, the A.S. adj. is not try^n, but trum, i.e. 
strong, firm, excellent. The sense probably would be ' Tryma's 

Westley. Spelt Westlega, R.B. ; Westle, H.R. ; Westlea, 
D.B., p. 156. Meaning ' west lea.' There is another Westley 
in Cambs. 

Yaxley. Spelt Yakesley, Ipm.; lacheslea, D.B., p. 201. 
There is another Yaxley in Hunts. The A.S. form is Geacesled ; 
in Kemble, CD., v. 342 ; from geaces, gen. of geac, a cuckoo. 
The sense is ' cuckoo's lea.' Fully discussed in my Place- 
names of Hunts. 

34. Low. 

The suffix -loiv is not uncommon ; it represents the A.S. 
hldw, a mound ; sometimes a burial mound or barrow. The 
only Suffolk example is Thurlow. 

Thurlow. Spelt Thrilloive Magna, Ipm. ; i.e. Great 
Thurlow. There is also a Little Thurlow. Spelt Trillawe, 
H.R.; Trillowe, H.R. Thrillauura, D.B., p. 182; Tridlauua, 
D.B., p. 233; Tritlaiua, D.B., p. 11. The final t, d in the D.B. 
Trit-, Trid-, point to an A.S. th ; and the true initial was Tk 

C. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 6 


also. Hence it represents an A.S. Thrythe-hlmu ; where 
Thryth (gen. Thrythe) is a known female name. The sense 
is 'burial-mound of Thryth.' 

35. Meadow. 

Meadow represents the A.S. mwdive, dat. of inwd, a mead ; 
so that meadow is, in fact, merely the dative of mead, without 
any variation of sense. The only example is Shipmeadow. 

Shipmeadow. Spelt Scipmedu, D.B., p. 41. Copinger 
notes the forms Shepmedive, Shepmed ; where the e is older 
than i. From A.S. sceap, a sheep. The sense is ' sheep- 
meadow.' In Shropshire, a sheep is always a shij) ; and the 
pi. is ships. Cf. Ship-ton. 

36. Mere. 

The term mere was applied to a lake or pool of any size. 
In some counties, another mei^e is used as a suffix also, with 
the sense of ' boundary.' But I think this second suffix does 
not appear in Suffolk names. The examples are five, viz. 
Bosmere, Hartismere, Livermere, Rushmere, Semer. 

Bosmere. This is the name of a hundred. Spelt Bosemere, 
H.R. ; Bosemera, D.B., p. 9. The prefix is from the A.S. Bosan, 
gen. of Bosa, a name of which there are several examples ; as 
in Bosen-hangran, in Birch, C.S. ii. 492. The sense is ' Bosa's 
mere.' I find, in the Ordnance map, that there is still a pool 
or small mere, beside the river Gipping, less than a mile below 
Needham Market. It is situate within grounds belonging to a 
hall named Bosmere Hall. This pool is called Bosmere in one 
of Kirby's maps; it was probably larger in days when little 
care was taken of the waterways. Moreover, it is situate very 
near the centre of Bosmere Hundred. In the Beauties of 
England, p. 217, Bosmere lake is called "a lake of 30 or 
40 acres." 

Hartismere. The name of a hundred. ^^e\t Hertesmere, 
H.R.: T.N.; D.B., p. 260; Hertesmera, D.B., p. 3. The O. Mercian 


equivalent is Herotes mere, later form Hertes mere ; where Herat, 
Hert, answer to the A.S. Ileorot, Heart, lit. ' a hart.' But it is 
here a name. The sense is ' Hart's mere.' 

LiVERMERE. Sometimes miscalled Livermore ; as in Kirby. 
To the N.N.E. of Bury is Livermere Park, containing a lake of 
considerable length. Spelt Livermere, H.R. ; Livremere, R.B. ; 
Liuermera, D.B., p. 166. Spelt Leuiiremer in a charter of 
Edward the Confessor, in Kemble, CD. iv. 245 ; but the copy 
is a late one, and the spelling is that of a Norman scribe. The 
name seems to be a mere compound, and is easily explained by 
the A.S. Icvfer, lefr, a yellow flag, the plant Iris Pseudacorus, 
still called levers (sometimes livers) in prov. E. ; see the E.D.D. 
The sense is ' flag-mere.' See Rushmere below. 

Perhaps it is well to note here that the same explanation 
may not apply to Liverpool ; which is supposed to have been 
' Leofhere's pool.' See Wyld, Lanes. Place-names. 

Rushmere, Considered by Kelly to be a part of Ipswich. 
It lies to the N.E. of the town. Spelt Rushemore (with o for e, 
a common error), Ipm. ; Riscemara, D.B., p. 4. The latter 
spelling is explained by the fact that the usual A.S. form of 
' rush ' is Wsc ; whence Rise-mere ; Birch, i. 83, 1. 3. The sense 
is simply 'rush-mere.' 

Semer. On the river Brett, some distance above Hadleigh. 
The Ordnance map shows a small pool near the church. Spelt 
>S*eme?^e, H.R.; this seems to be the oldest spelling; Seamera, 
D.B., p. 176. It is seldom mentioned ; Copinger has also Soi/mer, 
Seamer. It appears to be simply compounded of the A.S. sre, 
a sea, lake, pool, pond ; and mere, a mere. The A.S. scd was 
applied to a pool of any size as well as to the sea ; and a pool 
would thus be called simply ' sea' ; very likely, mere was a later 
explanatory addition ; its sense was very nearly as vague. 

37. Pool. 

The A.S. pol, a pool, sometimes appears as -pale in the 
suffix of a place-name. It occurs in Walpole. Cf. PoLSTEAD. 



Walpole. To the S.W. of Halesworth. Spelt Walepol, 
R.B. ; H.R. ; Walepola, D.B., p. 24. It appears as Walepol in 
a late charter with Norman spellings; in Kemble, CD. iv. 245; 
with reference to Walpole in Norfolk. The prefix Wale- 
re presents the A.S. Weala, gen. pi. of Wealh, a foreigner, a 
Briton. The sense is ' Britons' pool ' ; or ' Welshmen's pool' 
Cf. Welshpool. 

38. Set, Sett. 

The suffix -set, as in Somer-set, represents the A.S. -swte, a 
pi. form signifying settlers, residents, or inhabitants. There is 
also a by-form -sStan, pi., with the same sense. It occurs in 
Bricett, Elmsett, Hessett, Wetheringsett, and, etymologically, 
in Wissett. 

Bricett. Great Bricett is to the S.W. of Needham Market ; 
the i is long, as in E. ice. Spelt Bresete, Ipm. ; H.R. ; Brisete, 
T.N., Ipm.; D.B. has Brieseta, pp. 226, 273; Bricseta, p. 248 
(printed Brieseta in the Victoria County History of Suffolk). It 
is in the hundred of Bosmere, and we find in D.B., p. 306, the 
following note, which seems to allude to Bricett. — " Hundret de 
Bosemera. In Brictices-haga est silua qua poterant pasci xvi. 
pore'." Again, in D.B., p. 12, is another note : — " Herchesteda: 
ten' Harold t[empore] r[egis] e[dwardi] V. car' terre : p7-o 
berewica in brictesceseia in comitatu de exsessa [Essex]." It is 
certain that the latter note refers to Brightlingsea in Essex, 
lit. ' Brightling's island'; but instead of -ling's we here have 
-esces, for -isces, i.e. mod. E. -isKs. That is, instead of ' Bright- 
ling's island ' it is here called ' Brightish's island,' which 
apparently expresses the same thing ; the suffixes being- 
adjectival and equivalent. In the same way, Brictices haga 
(better spelt Brictisces haga) means ' Brightish haw ' ; and we 
may fairly conclude that Bricett was originally Brictsete in 
Norman, or Beorht-soete in A.S. spelling. The A.S. heorht is 
not only an adj., meaning ' bright,' but also a neut. sb., meaning 
' brightness ' or ' clear light.' I explain Beorkt-swte as ' settlers 
in a bright spot.' This may seem a somewhat strange formation, 
but it is exemplified and justified by the notorious form Burner- 


sd'te, or ' summer-settlers/ which exists to-day as Somerset, 
That Brightset could pass into Bricett is sufficiently obvious; 
but it would not be easy to assign any other form which would 
give the same result. The intermediate form would be Brighset, 
which (if the gh be kept silent) fairly accounts for the modern 

Elmsett. Spelt Elmesete, T.N. ; Elmesset, H.R. ; Elmeseta, 
D.B., p. 249. We find the gen. pi. Elmesetene in Birch, CD., 
i. 502, 1. 11. The correct nom. pi. of this is Elmescvtan, i.e. 
'settlers at the elm,' or 'beside the elm.' Elme is in the dat. 
case, the prep, wt, ' at,' being understood. 

Hessett ; also Hedgsett (in 1813). Spelt Hegesset, H.R. ; 
misspelt Heteseta (probably for Heceseta, with Norman c for g), 
D.B., p. 149. Copinger also gives Heggesete, Heggesett, Hegsete, 
Hegyssete. The g must have been single, because the M.E. gg 
became dg. The derivation is not exactly from the A.S. hecg, 
'hedge,' but from the allied form hege, a 'hay' or fence. The 
sense is ' hay-settlers ' ; where hay is the prov. E. liay, ' a hedge, 
a fence, a boundary'; E.D.D. The A.S. form is hege-swte. 

Wetheringsett. Spelt Wederingesete,'^.^.\ Wederingaseta, 
D.B., p. 179 ; Weringheseta (a contracted form), D.B., p. 10. 
We find the A.S. form Wederingesete in Kemble, CD. iv. 245 ; 
but the copy is in late and Norman spelling. The th is un- 
original, as in father, mother (A.S. feeder ^ modor) ; several 
words ending in -der were altered so as to end in -ther in the 
fifteenth century. No name begins with Wether in Old 
English ; but the Wederas, or tribe of Weders, are mentioned 
repeatedly in Beowulf. They were a tribe of Geats, and their 
province was called Weder-mearc or ' Weder-mark.' No doubt 
the Wederings belonged to this tribe. The sense is 'settlers 
belonging to the tribe of the Weders.' 

WISSETT. Spelt Wyssete, iTpm.; Wisete,R.B.; Wysete, U.R. ; 
Wiseta, D.B., p. 337 ; Wisseta, D.B., p. 25. The corresponding 
A.S. form should be Wi-s^te ; and I take wi to represent the 
A.S. ^u^h, 'an idol,' of which the original sense was really 'a 
heathen temple,' like that of the O. Sax. wlh, Icel. ve. The 


sense is * settlers beside or near a temple.' A corresponding 
name Veseti occurs in O. Norse, and was used as a personal 
name, though the original sense was 'settler near a temple'; 
see Bjorkman and Rygh. The name may have been merely 
borrowed from Norse ; in which case it must be remembered 
that, as far as Suffolk was concerned, Wlseti was merely a 
personal name, the origin of which may have been but dimly 
remembered. R-ygh gives no less than seven place-names in 
Avhich the Norse name is preserved ; such as Veset-rud, 

39. Stall. 

This is the same word as the modern E. stall in cattle-stall ; 
though the sense somewhat varies. It occurs in Burstall and 

Burstall. To the W. of Ipswich. Spelt Burstall, H.K. ; 
Ipm. ; Burgestala, D.B., p. 189 ; Burghestala, D.B., pp. 193, 229. 
The A.S. form is hiirg-steall, lit. 'position for a fort'; not a 
common word. In the A.S. poem called ' The Ruins,' ed. Grein, 
1. 29, hrosnade hurgsteal means ' the foundation of the fort has 
crumbled to pieces.' In Wright and Wlilker's Vocabularies, 
205. 30, burhsteal has the curious sense of ' a path down a hill ' ; 
and the prov. E. borstaU means ' a path up a steep hill ' ; or, in 
Kent, 'any seat on the side of a hill.' 

Tunstall. Tunstall-cum-Dunningworth is nearly due W. 
of Aldeburgh. Spelt Tunstall, H.R. ; T.N. ; Tonestala, D.B., 
p. 236 ; Tunestal, D.B., p. .53. A.S. tun-steall, a farmstead ; 
from t€m, a ' town,' i.e. a farm ; and steall, a stall, position, 
place, stead. 

40. Stead. 

Stead, a place, position, is the A.S. stede. It occurs in 
Belstead, Boxstead, Harkstead, Hawstead, Henstead, Lin stead, 
Nettlestead, Polstead, Saxstead, Stanstead, Whepstead, Wher- 

Belstead, S.W, of Ipswich. Spelt Belstede, H.R. ; Bele- 
steda, D.B., p. 51. I am in doubt as to the prefix ; but think 


it may be Norse. There is a Norse name Beli, occurring in 
the Edda ; so that it might mean ' Beli's stead.' The gen. of 
Beli was Belja. Searle gives an E. name Beola, a moneyer in 
the time of yEtheh-ed II. and Cnut. This may be merely the 
same name in E. spelling ; and Belstead may represent Beolan- 
stede. See Bealings (above). 

BoxsTEAD, or BoxTED (Kelly). Spelt Boxsted, H.R. ; Tpm. ; 
Boxstede, T.N. ; R.B. ; Boesteda, D.B., pp. 138, 139. From A.S. 
box, a box-tree ; and stede, a place. ' A place where box trees 

Harkstead. Spelt Herkested, H.R. ; Herkestede, T.N., 
Herchesteda (with che = ke), D.B., pp. 12, 280. A similar prefix 
occurs in Herces-nws, Herces-dlc, and Herces-get ; all in Birch, 
C.S. iii, 103. Compare also Hwrices-hamm; in Birch, C.S. 
ii. 298. Here may be a shortened form of Hceric. A likely 
sense is ' Hseric's place ' or ' Here's place ' or ' stead.' A weak 
form Hereca is given in Searle, and is probably an allied name. 
But all these forms, Hcuric, Here, Hereca, are probably un- 
English, and are really due to an O. Norse Herekr, or Ha'7^ekr, 
explained by Rygh as a name which is only found in place- 
names, such as Herikstad (sometimes abbreviated to Herstad), 
which is obviously a Norse form of Harkstead. I regard 
Harkstead, accordingly, as due to Scandinavian influence. 

Hawstead. Spelt Hausted, H.R. ; but Halsteda, D.B., 
p. 155. Copinger also gives Halstead, Hcdsted, Halstede, from 
other sources ; so that an Id has been lost. I take the prefix 
to be the 0. Merc, hald, A.S. Jieald, sloping ; which sometimes 
appears in place-names. See healdan graf, sloping ditch ; 
Birch, C.S. ii. 382 ; healdan weg, sloping way ; id, 524 ; healdan 
hlince, sloping linch, id. iii. 33. The sense is ' sloping stead ' or 
' sloping place.' The form hald is also found in Old Frisian. 

Henstead. S.W. of Lowestoft. Spelt Henestede, H.R. ; 
D.B., p. 238; Henstede, R.B.; Henested, Hensted, T.N. I regard 
it as a parallel formation to Henley ; and explain it as repre- 
senting A.S. a3t tham hean stede, ' at the high stead ' or position. 
It is not very high, though above the Hundred river. 


LiNSTEAD. Spelt Linsted, Ipm. ; Linestede, D.B., p. 61 . 
The e before the stede in the latter form may be due to the st 
following, and need not be considered. From A,S, Im, flax ; 
and stede, stead. The same prefix occurs in Linton, Cambs. 
The sense is ' flax-stead ' ; or place where flax was grown, 

Nettlestead. N.W. of Ipswich. Spelt Netlested, T.N. ; 
Netlestede, R.B. ; Netlestedam, D.B., p. 28. From A.S. netele, 
netle, a nettle. The sense is 'nettle-place.' There is another 
Nettlestead in Kent; spelt Netlestede in Birch, C.S. iii. 659, 
1. 19. 

Polstead. S.W. of Hadleigh. Spelt Foisted, R.B. ; Pol- 
stede, T.N. ; Polesteda, D.B., p. 241. It occurs as Polstede in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 525. From A.S. pol, a pool; and stede, a 
stead, place. Lit. ' pool-stead.' 

Saxstead. Spelt Saxstede, Ipm. ; Saxteda, D.B., p. 37. 
For O. Merc. Saxan stede, A.S. Seaxan stede. Lit. ' Saxa's 
stead.' Saxa is a known name. 

Stanstead. Spelt >S'^awste(i, Ipm. ; H.R.; Stanesteda, D.B., 
p. 255. For A.S. stdnstede ; lit. ' stone stead.' 

Whepstead. Spelt Whepstede, T.N. ; Ipm. ; Huepestede, 
D.B., p. 152. The A.S. form Hwipstede occurs in -^If helm's 
Will ; in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 596. The j)refix must denote a 
personal name of the form *Hwipa or *Hwepa (gen. *Hwipan, 
*Hwepan); and the sense must be ' *Hwipa's (or *Whepa's) 
stead.' There certainly was a base *hwip-, probably with the 
sense of ' to move quickly ' or ' to bend easily ' ; the A.S. 
hwip-er means unstable, infirm ; Wright's Vocab. 245. 25. 

Wherstead. To the W. of the river Orwell, below Ipswich. 
Spelt Whersted, Ipm. ; Wer-uesteda, D.B., p. 30. Copinger also 
quotes Wefniestede, from another source. The prefix Werue-, 
for Wherue-, suggests the A.S. hwearf, hwerf, spelt hwerf in 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 841, 1. 7 ; where it seems to mean a 
protecting bank. It further suggests that there was a wharf, 
bank, or landing-place on the Orwell, near Wherstead ; and it 
is remarkable that the Ordnance map marks a " Wharf" not far 


off, on the bank of the Orwell between Wherstead and Freston. 
It seems probable, accordingly, that Wherstead means ' wharf- 
stead.' The church is quite half a mile from the river, but the 
Hall is nearer. 

41. Stoke, Stock. 

The A.S. stoc meant, in the first instance, a stock or log ; 
but is evidently used also in the sense of habitation or settle- 
ment ; perhaps one protected by stocks or stakes, and so fenced 
in. It is safest to explain it by ' settlement.' The length of 
the is doubtful; I see no special reason for supposing that it 
was long (stoc), though it is sometimes so marked. The modern 
English stoke will best answer to A.S. stoce, dative, with short o; 
just as the mod. E. broken is the A.S. brdcen. 

It seems only necessary to add that there is a Stoke-by- 
Clare, i.e. near Clare ; a Stoke-by-Nayland ; and a place called 
Stoke Ash, to the S.W. of Eye. The A.S. stoc occurs as a suffix 
in Tostock. 

Tostock. To the E. of Bury. Spelt Tostoke, H.R. ; 
Totstocha (with ch for k), D.B., p. 166 ; Totestoc, D.B., p. 8. 
The last is the fullest form. For A.S. Tottan-stoc ; a form 
which occurs in Kemble, CD. ii. 872. The sense is ' Totta's 

42. Stone. 

Chediston. Near Halesworth. The suffix is not -to7i, but 
-stone, as the old forms show. Spelt Ghedeston, Chedestan, H.R.; 
Gedestan (with ce for che), D.B., p. 328 ; ill-spelt Cidestan, D.B.. 
p. 103; misspelt Sedestana (with se for ce), D.B., p. 25. The 
A.S. Ce becomes M.E. Che; and the corresponding A.S. form is 
Ceddes stan, i.e. ' Cedd's stone.' This is more likely than 
Ceddan stdn, i.e. ' Cedda's stone.' Cedd and Cedda are both 
real names, and are closely allied. 

43. Stow. 

Stow is the A.S. stow, a place ; whence the phrase to stow 
aiuay. There is a hundred named Stow ; West Stow, two and 
a half miles W. of Ingham (N. of Bury) ; and Stowmarket, near 


which is Stow Upland. The hundred may have been named 
from Stow, which was doubtless the old name of Stowmarket ; 
since market is a word of Picard-French origin. Stowmarket is 
somewhere near the centre of Stow hundred. And stotu appears 
as a suffix in Felixstowe. 

Felixstowe. Copinger gives eleven spellings of this name. 
One of them is Felixstow. But the other ten are very different, 
viz. Filthestowe, Fillthustowe ; also (with c for t, erroneously) 
Felchestoiue, Filchestowe, Fylchestow; Felyestoiue (with y for the 
A.S. ]> = th) ; and (in a contracted form) Felstoiv, Fylstowe, 
Fylstoe, Filston (error for Filstou). It is quite certain that, 
not long after the Conquest, the prevalent form was Filthestow, 
and that it was afterwards shortened to Filthstow and Filstow. 
The name Felixstow is, in fact, not the original one, and does 
not occur in early documents ; but it was known in the time of 
Henry VIIL, as it occurs in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, made 
during that reign. A distinction is there drawn between 
" prior' de Filstoive modo subpress' '' (vol. iii. p. 447) and 
" monasterio de Felyxstowe " (vol. iii. p. 449) ; so that the 
names did not then refer to the same place. In Tanner's 
Notitia Monastica (ed. 1787) there is mention of the monastery 
of Walton St Felix ; and he speaks of a MS. that refers to " the 
priory of Felixstowe, alias Fylchestowe in Walton." It appears, 
in fact, that Walton St Felix was a priory founded by Roger 
Bigod, about 1105; that it was called by the name of Felix; 
and that it was situate at Walton, about a mile from Filstow, 
properly so called/. The names were confused, and so the 
name of Filstow was sometimes changed to Felixstow, though 
many still held to the older name. Thus we find in Raven's 
Suffolk, p. 150—" Felixtow alias Fylstou." But in the present 
enlightened days, the more attractive name has prevailed, 
owing to such advancement of knowledge as has enabled the 
antiquaries to discover that the historian Beda mentions the 
labours of St Felix in Suffolk, who "had the see of his bishopric 
appointed him in the city Dommoc," which was the old name 
of Dunwich (Hist. Eccl. ii. 15). Dunwich, after all, is not 

1 " The church of St Felix in Walton " ; Kirby, p. 88. 


Felixstow, but it is in the same county ; which is held to be 
good enough for corroboration of a blunder. One hardy fable 
is that St Felix landed near Felixstowe when he came from 
Burgundy ! 

It is more to the purpose to discover the origin of the true 
name Filstow. On this subject, we read in the Crawford 
Charters, ed. Napier and Stevenson, p. 71 : — " Felixstowe, 
CO. Suffolk, apparently represents a Fileth-stow, as it is ciiUed 
Filthstowe in 1316 (Nomina Villarum, 319 a)." They explain 
that " Fileth is an unexplained word that occurs several times 
in local names " ; and they give examples, in which occur the 
spellings fileth, fdet, filed, /(/let, and once fcelet (probably by 
error), in compounds ; and uncompounded, in the expression on 
filetha] see Birch, C.S. iii. 494, 589, &c.; ii. 519. Such nouns 
are often made from verbs, and the right form may be fyleth 
(ioT fylleth), from fyllan, to fell trees. It would then correspond 
to the prov. E. fellet, 'the portion of a wood felled annually, a 
portion of felled wood.' The original sense may bave been, 
simply, ' a place of felled trees,' a place where trees have been 
felled to make a clearing. It is compounded with leaJi, a lea, 
cumb, a combe, hanim, an enclosure, and stoiv, a place ; all 
implying some special locality, and all suitable. But whatever 
the right sense may be, we at any rate learn that Felixstow is 
an ingenious ' learned ' alteration of a place that was once 
named Filethstow, afterwards shortened to Filthstow and 
Filstow. (I find that Middendorf derives fileth from A.S. fillan, 
to flay, skin, with reference to the removal of turf; but no such 
verb is found in A.S., and the sense is very forced. On the 
other hand, the verb ' to fell ' appears as fille in the best 
(Ellesmere) MS. of Chaucer : " It semed as it wolde fille an 
ook" ; Knightes Tale, A 1702.) 

44. Thorpe. 

Thorpe, more correctly thorp, is the O. Frisian and A.S. 
thorp, 'a village'; cognate with Du. dorp, G. dorf. We find 
(in Suffolk) Thorpe-Morieux, a hamlet called Thorpe near 
Aldriugham, and Thorpe-by-Ixworth ; and also Westhorpe. 
The first takes the name of Morieux from a Norman family so 


called. The 0. Fr. moriel (of which morieux is the plural) is a 
variant oi morel, meaning ' mnlberry-coloured'; the name Morel 
was often given to a horse. Westhorpe is merely compounded 
of West and Thorpe. Thorp is not exclusively Scandinavian, 
as some say, 

4.5. Toft. 

Toft meant a green knoll, open ground, or homestead ; see 
my Etym. Diet. It occurs in Lowestoft and in Stowlangtoft. 
The latter is a mere compound, containing Stow, a place, lang, 
i.e. long ; and toft ; and Kirby thinks it was named from a 
family of Langtofts. 

Lowestoft. Copinger gives many forms, including late 
spellings such as Laistoft, Leistoft, and Lestoff; the last of 
these represents a common pronunciation of it. An early 
spelling is Lowistoft, H.R. ; T.N. D.B., p. 5, has Lothuwistofte. 
Here Lothuwis represents an A.S. Hlothuwlges, gen. of 
Hlothuwig, usually spelt Hlothewig or Hlodwig; the form 
Hlothewlg occurs in Birch, C.S. iii. 491, 1. 1. This A.S. name 
is cognate with the Old High German Hluduwig or Hludwig, 
Mid. High G. Ludewic, G. Ludwig ; a famous name. Latinised 
as Chlodovichus and Chlodovius, which produced the F. Louis. 
Thus the sense is ' Hlothuwig's toft ' or homestead. 

46. Ton, unstressed form of Town. 

Acton. N. by E. from Sudbury. Spelt A ketona, D.B., p. 71, 
and on the same page, Achetuna. Copinger gives several forms, 
of which the most important are Acketon, Aketon, Aketone, 
Aketune ; showing (by the e before the t) that it is not derived 
from A.S. ac-tun, i.e. ' oak-town,' as is the case with some of the 
Actons elsewhere. Moreover, this Suffolk Acton appears as 
Acantun in a list of boundaries of land at Bildeston, which is 
in the neighbourhood ; and this A.S. form is consistent with the 
forms given above. Hence the meaning of this Acton is ' Aca's 
town,' Aca is a known name. See Birch, C.S. iii. 603. The 
A.S. tun, lit. ' town,' had, practically, the sense of ' farm.' 


Alderton. Near the E. coast, to the S. of the mouth of 
the Aide. Spelt Alderton, Ipm. ; but Alretuna in D.B., p. 74; 
and Alreton in the Crawford Charters, p. 33, The prefix 
represents A.S. alra, gen. pi. of air, an alder-tree. The sense 
is 'alders' town,' or * farm by the alder-trees.' 

Alpheton. W. by N. from Lavenham. Also spelt 
Alpheaton (Kelly). Spelt Alfeton, Alffleton, H.R. The latter 
spelling answers to the A.S. form ^IJlwdetun in a Worcester- 
shire Charter ; in Birch, iii. 586. jElflccde is better spelt 
^Ifflrrde, the gen. of JSlffla'd, a female name, which accounts 
for the gen. in -e and the spelling Alffleton (with the double/). 
The sense is ' town (or farm) of ^Elfflied.' She was probably a 

Ampton. N. of Bury, near Ingham station. Copinger re- 
cords the old forms Ameton, Ametone, Ametun ; spelt Hametuna 
(with H wrongly prefixed) in D.B., p. 165. The prefix repre- 
sents the A.S. Amman, gen. oi Amma ; cf. Amman-hroc, Amman- 
ivell (both in Kemble's Index). The sense is ' Amma's farm.' 

AssiNGTON. N.W. of Nay ton. Spelt Asetime, KB.; 
Asington, T.N. ; Asinton, Asington, H.R.; Asetona, D.B., p. 271. 
Copinger also records Asentune, Assinton, Asynton. The A.S. 
form is certainly Asantun ; and the -an has been turned into -en, 
-in, and -ing. We must neglect the g in this case. The sense 
is ' Asa's farm.' Asa is a known E. name. 

Athelington. E. of Occold, which is S. by E. from Eye. 
Spelt Athelington, Ipm. ; answering to A.S. ^thelinga-tun ; 
lit. ' town (or farm) of the ^thelings or nobles.' The A.S. 
cetheling means a prince or nobleman. Cf. Athelney, of which 
the old form was .^thelinga-ig, or ' isle of nobles.' Perhaps I 
ought to add that to translate cetheling by 'noble' in these 
instances is by no means certain ; since Ji^theling might equally 
well have the simpler sense of ' son of ^thela,' i.e. ' son of any 
one whose name began with vEthel ' ; and such names are 

Bacton. N. of Stowmarket. Copinger gives the forms 
Baketon, Bakenton; D.B. has Bachetuna, p. 292 (with che for ke). 


The late A.S. Baketun occurs in the Crawford Charters, p. 33. 
For A.S. Bacan-tun. The sense is ' Baca's farm.' Baca is a 
known name. 

Barton. Great Barton ; N.E. of Bury. Spelt Bertuna, 
D.B., p. 162. A.S. beretun, lit. 'corn-farm,' or barley-enclosure; 
from here, barley. There are many Bartons. 

Belton. S.W. of Yarmouth. Spelt Belton, H.R.; Beltone, 
R.B. ; Beletuna, D.B., pp. 6, 8. For the prefix, see Belstead. 

Beyton. Spelt Beyton, Ipm. ; Beytone, R.B. ; Begatona, 
D.B., p. 259. It answers to A.S. Bcvgan-tim. The prefix 
Bwgan occurs in Bwgan-iuyrth ; Birch, C.S. iii. 96, I. 29. The 
sense is ' Bgega's farm.' The prefix in Bayford (Herts.) is not 
quite the same, as the form in D.B. is Begesford ; see my 
Place-names of Herts., p. 27. 

Bildeston. N. of Hadleigh. Spelt BUdeston, H.R. ; T.N. ; 
Bildestone, R.B. ; Bilestuna, D.B., p. 291. The d is intrusive, 
as the last form shows. Alluded to in the form Byliges-dyne; 
Birch, C.S. iii. 603 ; where dyne is a derivative from dun. The 
same prefix occurs in Bylges-Uge, in the A.S. Chron., an. 10.55. 
The sense is ' Bylig's farm.' 

Blundeston. N.W. of Lowestoft. Spelt Bhmdeston, H.R, 
Blundes is the gen. of Blund, which occurs as a personal name 
in the name-list given in Ipm., vol. i. Of Norse origin ; Zoega 
has : Icel. " blundr, m. dozing, slumber ; occurs as a nickname." 
The sense is ' Blund's farm ' ; Blund (orig. Blundr) being 

Boyton. S. of Butley, and near the Butley river. Spelt 
Bointone, R.B. ; Boituna, D.B., p. 81. Copinger also has the 
form Boynton. The prefix Boin- is short for A.S. Boian, late 
form of Bogan, gen. of Boga, a known name. The sense is 
' Bosra's farm.' 

Brampton. N.E. of Halesworth. Spelt Brampton, T.N. ; 
but Brarntuna, D.B., p. 15 ; BranUma, D.B., p. 102. Copinger 
also gives the form Bramton ; and the p is certainly unoriginal. 


The dat. form Bramtune occurs iii the A.S. Chronicle, an. 1121. 
The form with mt must be older than that with nt ; the change 
from mt to nt is easy, but that from nt to nit is abnormal. The 
same prefix Brani- occurs again in Bramcestria (Birch, C.S. iii. 
280), which is Brancaster in Norfolk ; showing that the original 
form of Brancaster was Bramceaster in Anglo-Saxon. The 
meaning of Bram (which can hardly, in the latter case, repre- 
sent a personal name) is unknown; but it may be related to 
the A.S. broyn, a broom, with which the mod. E. bramble 
is etymologically connected. The sense of 'bramble-farm' 
seems possible here. (If a personal name, it is from Brama, 
gen. of Brami, a Norse name ; see Nielsen.) 

Brandeston. Brandeston (Leic.) appears in Ipm. We also 
find Branteston, T.N. ; Braundestone, in the Liber Custumarum; 
Brantestuna, D.B., p. 302 ; but Brandestuna, D.B., p. 216. 
Brandes is the gen. of the known name Brand ; and the sense 
is 'Brand's farm.' 

Browston, in Belton ; a hamlet one mile S.E. of Belton. 
Copinger gives, as old spellings, the forms Broweston and 
Broxton. It answers, by position, to Brochestuna, D.B., p. 7 ; 
and the last two forms suggest that a guttural sound has 
been lost, and that the original form was Brocces-tun ; with 
which compare Brocces-ham, -hlcew, and -slwd, in Kemble's 
Index. The sense may have been 'Brocc's farm.' 

Carlton. Carlton Colville is to the S.W. of Lowestoft; 
and Colville is the name of a Norman family connected with it. 
Spelt Carleton, T.N., H.R. ; Carletuna, D.B., p. 254 ; Kaiietuna, 
D.B., p. 43. For A.S, Carla tun, 'farm of the churls' or 
husbandmen. Carla is the gen. pi. of carl, a churl, a husband- 
man ; where carl is not the true native word, but borrowed 
from the O. Norse karl, a man, rustic, carle ; the A.S. related 
word is ceorl, mod. E. churl; as in Chelsvvorth. 

Chelmondiston. Commonly called Chemton (Kirby). Near 
the S.W. bank of the Orwell. Spelt Chelmundeston, H.R. ; 
Chelmondeston, T.N. The A.S. form is Ceolminides tun, i.e. 
' Ceolmund's farm.' Ceolmund was once a very common name. 


Chevington. S.W. of Bury. The </ is a late insertion ; 
it should have been Cheventon. Spelt Cheventon, H.R.; Ceven- 
tiina (with Ge for Che), D.B., p. 153. The prefix is the A.S, 
Ceo/an, gen. of Ceo/a ; and the sense is ' Ceofa's farm.' 

Chilton. Near Sudbury. Spelt Chilton, Ipm. ; Ciltona 
(with Ci for Chi), D.B., p. 47. Copiuger also gives the spellings 
Cheletuna, Chelton, without references. But these forms are 
doubtless right, and show that e was the older vowel. The 
prefix Cliele- represents the A.S. Ceolan, as in Ceolan-hyrst ; 
Birch, C.S., ii. 458. Ceolan is the gen. of Ceola ; and the sense 
is ' Ceola's farm.' Ceola would become Clieel, easily shortened 
to Chil. 

Clopton. Spelt Clopton, H.R. ; Clopetuna, D.B., p. 70. 
The prefix Clope- answers to the A.S. Cloppa in Cloppa-hCim ; 
see Sw^eet, E. Eng. Texts, p. 451. This Cloppa looks like a 
gen. pi. from a nom. clop, as in clop-wcer, clop-hyrst, in Birch, 
C.S., iii. 589, 590. In this case, it is difficult to assign the 
origin ; unless we ally it to the O.H.G. claph, ' a boulder.' 
Otherwise, Clope may answer to the A.S. Cloppan, gen. of 
Cloppa, a personal name, not exactly found ; but it may be 
the equivalent of Clappa, the name of a king of Bernicia in 
Florence of Worcester's Chronicle, i. ; according to Prof. 
Moorman, in his account of Clapham in the W. Riding, Clap- 
ham in Surrey is called Cloppaham in Kemble, CD., no. 317 ; 
so that Clap and Clop seem to have been convertible. 

Coney Weston. N, of Ixworth ; not far from the Little 
Ouse. Spelt Cunegestuna, D.B.,y>. 169; showing that the name 
has suffered some alteration. The original prefix must have 
been the 0. Norse konungs, a form of the gen. of konung, a 
king. The second n being lost, this took the form konugs ; 
or (with the English suffix -es in place of the Norse s) konuges, 
fairly well represented by the Cuneges in D.B. ; after which 
the -es was dropped, and the prefix became Coney. We thus 
see that the original sense was ' king's town or farm ' ; which 
would regularly have given a later form Coneyton ; but the 
latter part of the word was changed from ton to Weston (west 


town) ; evidently by association with the neighbouring village 
called Market Weston, the prefix Coney being contrasted with 
that of Market. Compare Coneythorpe in the W. Riding, 
which means ' king's thorpe ' or ' king's village.' 

CoRTON. On the E. coast, N. of Lowestoft. Spelt Cortone, 
R.B. ; Gorton, H.R. ; Karetuna, D.B., p. 6 (which can hardly be 
quite correct, but must stand for Koretuna). The sense of the 
prefix is unknown and uncertain; but Kore- suggests an A.S. 
*Corau, gen. of *Cora, used as a personal name. That such a 
name was in use is suggested by the occurrence of Cores, the 
gen. of a strong form Cor. Cores occurs in Coreshroc ; in 
Kemble, CD., no. 632. Hence a possible sense is 'Cora's 

Cotton. Near Mendlesham. Spelt Coton, H.R. ; but D.B. 
has Cottuna, pp. 10, 11 ; Cotetuna, p. 84; and Codetuna, p. 58. 
It is clear that, of these forms, Codetuna is the older ; afterwards 
d became t, and the two ^'s were united. Codentuna at once 
suggests an equivalent A.S. form Codan-tun. The prefix Codan 
occurs in Codan-ford ; Birch, C.S., ii. 224, 1. 3. The sense is 
'Coda's farm.' See Coddenham. 

Bennington. N. of Framlingham. Spelt Dinyeueton, H.R.; 
Dingiuetuna, D.B., p. 90; Dingiuetona, D.B., p. 91; Binneuetuna 
(where B is an error for D), D.B., p. 95. Copinger gives a 
large number of later forms, among which may be particularly 
noticed these: Digneveton, Dingneueton, Bingniueton, Binieueton, 
Byneyeueton. It is clear that the original suffix was by no 
means -ington; but that -ington was substituted for something 
far less usual. All the forms can, without much difficulty, be 
deduced from A.S. *Denegife, gen. of a female name *Denegifu. 
Though this name does not happen to occur, it is regular and 
probable, as it is compounded of the common prefix Bene- 
and the common suffix -gifit. Moreover, we find a similar form 
Benegyth, also a female name, with a gen. Benegythe. The 
compound place-name Bengithe-graf (with i for y) occurs in 
Birch, C.S., ii. 419, 1. 3. The g in gifu was pronounced as y, 
and the form Deneyiveton easily became Denyivton ; and this 

C. A. S. Octivo Series. No. XLVI. 7 


unusual and difficult form was changed to Bennington, because 
the suffix -ington was common. I have little hesitation m 
explaining this unusual name to mean ' Denegifu's farm'; and 
we must remember that this is a female name, with a genitive 
in -e. 

Denstone ; otherwise Denardiston (Kelly). Spelt Denar- 
deston, H.E,.; Danerdestuna, D.B., p. 219. Evidently for Dene- 
heardes tun (O. Merc. Denehardes tun). The gen. occurs (with 
DcBne- for the more usual Dene-) in Dceneheardes hegeneive; 
Birch, C.S., ii. 81. The sense is ' Denehard's farm.' 

Drinkstone. E. by S. from Bury. Spelt Drencheston, 
Ipm. ; H.K ; Drencestuna, D.B., p. 164. Other spellings (in 
Copinger) are Drengstone, Dryngeston, which are, practically, 
better. The form Rengestuna occurs in D.B., p. 21, with initial 
D omitted by mistake. A more correct form would be 
Drenges-tun, where Drenges is the gen. of the A.S. dreng, a 
warrior, soldier ; not an English word, and only occurring 
once, as it was borrowed from O. Norse. The O. Norse word 
was drengr, a valiant man, strong young fellow. The sense 
is 'soldier's farm.' The same prefix occurs in Dringhouse, in 
the W. Riding ; see the discussion of the social position of the 
drengr in Prof. Moorman's W. Riding Names, p. xxiii. 

N.B. — Dreng was also a personal name (Nielsen). 

Easton. There are two Eastonsj one near Southwold, and 
another on the Deben. It means ' east town ' or ' east farm.' 

Edwardstone. Between Sudbury and Hadleigh. Spelt 
Edivardeston, T.N. ; Ipm. ; Eduardestuna, D.B., p. 47. For 
A.S. Eadtueardes tun ; 0. Merc. Eadwardes tun ; mod. E. ' Ed- 
ward's farm.' 

Erwarton. N. of the Stour, near its mouth. Spelt Euer- 
luardton, H.R. ; Eureiuardestuna, D.B., p. 229. For O. Merc. 
Eforwardes tun, A.S. Eqforweardes tun. The sense is 'Efor- 
ward's farm.' 

EusTON. S.E. of Thetford. Spelt Eustone, R.B. ; Eueston, 
H.R. ; Euestuna, D.B., p. 174. In the last two examples, u is 


for v; so that an older name was Eveston. The {arcfix is the 
same as in Evesham, viz. the A.S. Eofes, gen. of Eof, a known 
name. The sense is ' Eofs farm.' 

Flempton. N.W. of Bury. The spelling in D.B. is Fleming- 
tuna,^. 154. This answers to A.S. fleaniinga tun or O. Merc. 
fleminga tiln. where fleaininga is the gen. pi. of Jleaming, a 
fugitive. The sense is ' farm of the fugitives.' 

Flixton. There are two Flixtons ; one near Bungay, and 
one near Lowestoft. Spelt i^^z^^o??, H.R.; Ipm.; Flixtuna, D.B., 
p. 6. Perhaps of Norse origin. Nielsen says that Flik was a 
Danish name, known in the thirteenth century. This form 
would suit very well, as it would take the f^rm of Flikkes 
when declined as an E. name. It is quite likely that Flixton 
meant ' Flik's farm.' In Raven's Hist, of Suffolk, p. 44, it is 
said that " the two Flixtons preserve the name of Felix." Of 
course this is wholly impossible, and shows what comes of ne- 
glecting phonetic laws. The stressed vowel in Felix cannot 
disappear ; a shortened form would become Fell or Fele. 

Flowton. Between Bury and Bildestou. The name (like 
Browston) has lost a guttural ; spelt Flokton in Ipm. ; Floclie- 
tiina (with die for ke), D.B., pp. 114, 226. The A.S. ct becomes 
ht ; and this ht becomes M.E. gh, and then lo ; the form Floctun 
would regularly become Flohtun, Floghton, Flowton. The 
present form shows that the e in the D.B. form Flochetuna was 
falsely inserted ; and that the A.S. form was Floctun., with the 
c and t in contact. Floctim is iox jlocc-tun ; from _^occ, a flock 
of sheep. The sense is ' flock-farm ' or ' sheep-farm.' 

Freston. Near the S.W. bank of the Orwell. Spelt 
Frestune, H.R. ; Fresetuna, D.B., p. 230. A.S. Fresan tun ; 
Birch, C.S., iii. 602. Fresan is the gen. of Fresa, a Frisian. 
The sense is ' farm (or town) of the Frisian.' This is an in- 
teresting result. See Friston. 

Friston. S.W, of Saxmundham. This name is a mere 
variant of Freston (above), and has the same sense. And see 



Fritton. N.W. of Lowestoft. Spelt Freton, H.R. ; Fride- 
tuna, D.B., p. 7 (with d for th). For A.S. Frith-tun-, see 
Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 564, I. 7. Cf. A.S. frith-hurh, a town 
in which /rzY^ or peace between two parties was secured. 
Hence the sense is ' frith farm,' or ' a farm to which security 
was assured.' The security may have been due to situation. 
For the development of the senses of frith, see N.E.D. 

GORLESTON. It forms a part of Great Yarmouth. Spelt 
Gorleston, T.N., H.R. ; Gurleston, T.N. ; Gorlestuna, D.B., p. 6. 
The prefix evidently represents the geu. case of a name which 
has been cut down to Gorl. I can think of no form that would 
admit of this except *Gorwulf, made (like Garwulf) with the 
suffix widf. There is such a prefix as Gov-, in limited use ; 
it occurs in Gor-mund and Gor-noth. Garwulf became Garulf, 
and might (in D.B.) have been shortened to Gar'l, but would 
hardly have given the required vowel o at so early a date as 
1086. As a rather likely guess, I suggest the sense of ' Gor- 
wulf's farm.' 

GuNTON. Near Lowestoft. Spelt Gunetone, R.B.; Guneton, 
H.R. Evidently Norse. From the O. Norse (r^mjia-^im ; where 
Gunna is the O.N. gen. of Gunni, a known masc. name, which 
is common in place-names (Rygh). The sense is ' Gunni's 

Hacheston. Spelt Hacheston, Haccheston, Ipm. ; Races- 
tvna, D.B., p. 26 ; Hecestuna, D.B., p. 12. The palatalised form 
suggests an English origin, rather than Norse. The patronymic 
Hcecing occurs in Birch, C.S., ii. 403, 1. 27, from a form *Hcec 
(gen. Hseces). The sense is probably ' Hjbc's farm.' The weak 
form Haca is known. 

Harleston. Three miles N.W. of Stowmarket Station. 
Spelt Herleston, H.R.; Heroluestima, D.B., p. 159. A.S. Heo- 
7-ulfes tUn; Kemble, CD., no. 722. Heorulfes is the gen. of 
Heorulf, shortened form of Heormuidf. The sense is ' Heoru- 
wulf's farm.' 

Hasketon. Near Woodbridge. Spelt Hasketon, H.R. ; 
Haschetuna, D.B., p. 69; Hascetuna, D.B,, p. 70. The sk 


shows that the name is of Norse origin. Rygh gives O. Norse 
Hoskuldr, a Norse personal name which appears in place- 
names as Haskel. Hence *Haskeltun, shortened to Hasketun. 
The sense is therefore ' Hoskuldr's farm.' 

Hemingstone. E. by S. of Needham Market. Spelt 
Hemingeston, T.N. ; Hemingestone, Ipm. ; Hainingestuna, D.B,, 
pp. 29, 115. But Copinger also gives the fuller forms Hel- 
mingstone, Hemelingeston, showing that an el has been lost 
after the m. The original form was therefore Hemelinges 
tun ; and the sense is ' Hemeling's farm,' or ' farm of the son 
of Hemele.' Hemele is a known name, of which Searle sives 
six examples. 

HiNTON. A mile and a half S.W. of Blythburgh. Spelt 
Hinetuna, D.B., p. 101. There are several Hintons; and 
Hinton (Dors.) is spelt Hineton in Ipm., p. 20. These spellings 
show that Hinton represents the A.S. hlna tun where hina is 
the gen. of hlwan, a pi. sb. meaning 'domestic servants,' and 
allied to mod. E. hind, an agricultural labourer. The sense 
is ' farm of the labourers ' ; a farm held by the labourers upon 
it, of which there were examples in a few places. Cf Carlton 

Holton. Near Halesworth. Spelt Holeton, Ipm. ; H.R. ; 
Holiton, H.R. ; Holetuna, D.B., pp. 67, 102. Not from A.S. 
Iialig, holy, because the A.S. a is represented by a in D.B., as 
in A.S. stantun, D.B. Stanton, &c. In some cases Hoi- repre- 
sents A.S. holan, ' hollow,' but this is scarcely applicable here. 
Rather, in this case, the corresponding A.S. Holan-tun must be 
due to a personal name Hola (gen. Holan), as also in such a 
compound as Holan-heorh, Hola's hill or barrow. The sense is 
' Hola's farm.' And see Hollesley. 

HoNiNGTON. N. by W. from Ixworth. Spelt Honeiueton, 
Ipm. ; Hunegtuna, D.B., p. 171. Copinger also has Honyton, 
Hunegetune. Hiineg represents the A.S. hunig, honey. Kemble 
has several place-names beginning with Hunig, as Hunig-broc, 
-hurne, -ham, -hyrst, &c. ; and there seems to be no reason 
against its occurrence here also. The sense is ' honey-farm,' 


or a farm where bees were kept. It might be supposed that 
Honiton became Honington by confusion with the numerous 
places ending in -ington, as in other cases. But in the present 
case a simpler solution presents itself. The Danish for honey 
is honning, and the Swedish is honing; so that Honing was 
merely due to the Scandinavian way of pronouncing honey. 

HoPTON. N. of Lowestoft. There is another Hopton, near 
Thetford. Spelt Hopeton, H.R.; T.N.; Hopetuna, D.B., p. 170 ; 
Hoppetuna, D.B., p. 66 ; Hopestuna, .D.B., p. 69. The last form 
contains an s, which can hardly be original. There is another 
Hopton in the W. Riding ; and it is supposed that the prefix is 
the A.S. hop, mod. prov. E. hope, ' a small enclosed valley,' ' a 
recess in a valley,' or ' a piece of enclosed land.' The sense is 
'hope farm'; where hope is to be thus explained. The insertion 
of the e seems to have no meaning in this case. 

HuNSTON. S.E. of Ixworth. Formerly Hunterstuna, D.B., 
p. 11. Copinger also gives the forms Honterston, Huntereston, 
Hunteriston, and the like ; all answering to A.S. Hunteres tun, 
i.e. ' Hunter's town ' or ' farm.' 

Kedington. Near Haverhill. Spelt Ketton in 1813, in 
Beauties of England, xiv. 142; Kediton, T.N.; H.R.; Kidituna, 
-D.B., p. 220. Copinger also gives Kedintun, Kedynton; showing 
that an n must be supplied before t. The name does not seem 
to be Norse ; nor can it be from an A.S. base Ced-, because that 
would have given us Ched-. The use of i in Kid- in D.B., and 
of e in Ked- in other records, suggests that the A.S. vowel was 
y, before which the G would remain hard. The A.S. form 
was probably Gydan-tun ; where Cydan is the gen. of Cyda. 
The name Cyda occurs in the Durham Liber Vitae. If this 
be right, the sense is ' Cyda's farm.' The A.S. suffix -an be- 
came M.E. -en (regularly), and might easily pass into -in. The 
late form in -ington arose from confusion with the suffix -ington, 
as correctly used in other instances. 

Kenton. N.E. of Debenham. Spelt /jTme^o/^ Ipm. ; Chene- 
tiina (with Che for Ke), D.B., p. 49 ; Kenetuna, D.B., p. 91. The 
A.S. c becomes ch before short e, but remains hard before a 


long one, as in Kenelm, from A.S. CenJielm, Hence Kenc- 
represents A.S, Genan, gen. of Gena, a known name. The sense 
is ' Cena's farm.' Cf. mod. E. Keene. 

Kettlebaston. Near Bildeston. Spelt Kettilharston in 
1813; in Beauties of England, xiv. 210; Kettleherstone, Ipm. ; 
and (in Copinger) Cutelherston, Ketelherston ; so that r must 
be supplied before the s. D.B., p. 177, gives Kitelheornastnna, 
which agrees with the known personal name Cytelbearn, Gytel- 
barn, Ketelharn ; lit. ' Cytel's or Cetel's son,' from A.S. hearn, 
0. Merc, ham, O. Norse ham, ' child.' The sense is ' Cytelbarn's 
farm,' or ' farm of Cytel's son.' Cytel is the same as the 
Norse name Ketill ; and Ketelbern occurs as a Norse name 

KiKTON, or Kirkton. N.W. of Felixstowe. Spelt Kirke- 
tone, R..B. ; Kirhetune, H.R. ; Gherchetuna, D.B,, p. 229, which 
is an Englished form. But Kirkton is of Norse origin ; from 
the 0. Norse kirkja, church. The sense is ' church-town ' or 
' church-farm.' 

Leiston. To the E. of Saxmundham, Spelt Leyston, H.R.; 
but this is a contracted form, since it appears as Lestaneston in 
Ipm., p. 218, col. 1 ; Leiston, D.B., p. 59. It does not seem to 
correspond in position to Leofstanestuna in D.B., pp. 121, 123; 
but it represents the same name. The A.S. form was Leofstanes 
tun, or ' Leofstan's farm.' It is quite likely that Leiston arose 
from the shortening of -stonston to -stoji ; to avoid repetition. 

Levington. S.E. of Ipswich. Spelt Levington, Ipm. ; Le- 
vintone, R.B. ; Leuentona, D.B., p. 251; Leuetuna, D.B., p. 121. 
It is clear that the insertion of g is comparatively late. It 
represents the A.S. Leo/an tun ; i.e. ' Leofa's farm.' Leofa was 
a pet-name for Leofric, or for other names beginning with 

Market Weston, i.e. west town ; see Weston. 

Melton. Near Woodbridge. Spelt Melton, T.N.; Meltuna, 
D.B., p. 25. [N.B. — The reference in Kemble's Index to Meltun 


is wrong ; the charter relates to Kent, and has the forms Mele- 
tun, Melentun, but not Meltun.] Copinger also gives the forms 
Meltoune and Mcdton ; the last is doubtful. The forms suggest 
a compound word, not a name followed by -ton ; because I and t 
are in immediate contact. Perhaps we may here take mel as a 
Norse word, as in the place-name Mellis (see p. 124). The 
sense will be then given by the Norw. ynel, a sandbank along 
a river-course, which in the present case is the Orwell. That 
is, it will mean ' farm near a sandbank.' Note : in the Glossary 
to Thorpe's Diplomatorium, he explains Methelton as meaning 
Melton (Suff.). This can hardly be right, and it contradicts his 
own suggestion at p. 591, that Methelton means Middleton. 

Middleton. Near Westleton ; Kelly describes it as 3 miles 
S. of Darsham station, on the river Minsmere. There are many 
Middletons, and some of them are strangely shortened to Milton, 
as good evidence proves. Spelt Mideltuna, D.B., p. 24 ; Middel- 
tuna, D.B., p. 63 ; and Copinger cites the forms Medilton, 
Middilton, Midelton. It means ' middle farm,' as in other cases, 
though the point of the application is not obvious. Thorpe, in 
his Diplomatorium, p. 591, equates Middleton with the A.S. 
Metheltun, which I believe to be wrong. 

MoULTON. E. of Newmarket. Spelt Midetone, R.B. ; Mule- 
ton, T.N.; Midetuna, D.B., p. 184. A.S. Mulan tun; in Thorpe, 
Diplomat., p. 508. The sense is ' Mula's farm.' 

Nacton. S.E. of Ipswich. Spelt Naketon, H.R. ; Naketune, 
R.B. ; Nachetuna (with che for ke), D.B., p. 251. The prefix is 
not English, but Norse ; from the O. Norse Nakki, gen. Nakka 
(Rygh). The sense is ' Nakki's farm.' 

Newton, near Sudbury. Old Newton, near Haughley. 
Newton means 'new town,' or 'new farm'; but the older one 
of the pair has the extraordinary name of Old Newton, as it 
is older than the Conquest, and is called Niwetuna in D.B., 
p. 159, and Neiuetuna, D.B., p. 140; from A.S. nuve, new. It 
was called Newton Vetus in 1278; see Ipm, 


Norton. S.E. of Ixworth. Spelt Nortuna, D.B., p. 8. For 
A.S. north tun. The sense is ' North form.' It lies to the north 
of Tostock, and may have been named from that circumstance. 

NowTON. S. of Bury. SjDelt iVo^io>;e, R.B. ; i\^aw^o?i, V.E. ; 
Neotuna, D.B., p. 153. The form of the word suggests that it 
is rather Norse than English. The prefix appears to be the 
O. Norse naut, cattle (E. neat, A.S. neat). The sense is 'cattle 
farm.' Cf. M.E. 7wwt, neat cattle. Bjorkman, p. 99, gives an 
example in which nouthird means ' neat-herd.' The ow in 
Nowton is pronounced like the ow in noiu. 

Ofton, or Offton. N.W. of Ipswich, but at some distance 
from it. Spelt Offintone, R.B. ; Offeton, Ipm. ; H.R. ; Offinton, 
T.N. ; Offetuna, D.B., p. 9. For A.S. Offan tun ; meaning 
' Offa's farm.' 

Oulton. W. of Lowestoft. Spelt Oulton, T.N. ; Olton, 
H.R. Simply for old town, or ' old farm.' Not, however, in 

Preston. Near Lavenham. Spelt Prestone, R.B. ; but 
Prestetona, Prestetune, D.B., pp. 139, 158. Thorpe, Diplomat., 
p. 583, has the dat. Prestone, but only in a late copy of an 
A.S. charter. The form in D.B. suggests the A.S. preosta tan, 
' town (or farm) of the priests ' ; from preosta, gen. pi. Hardly 
a compound, as preost-tiui, i.e. ' priest farm.' 

Sapiston. N. by E. from Ixworth. Spelt Sapston, Ipm. ; 
Sapiston, H.R. ; Sapestuna, R.B. ; D.B., p. 171. The forms are 
all, unmistakeably, genitives singular ; from an unknown per- 
sonal name *Sap or *Saip. The A.S. seep (gen. scopes) means 
' sap ' ; and sceppe (gen. sceppan) is ' a spruce-fir.' Sap- cote is 
in Leics., and Kemble's Index has Sap-cmnh; but all these 
throw no real light on the personal name. The sense seems 
to be ' Sap's farm.' 

Sibton. S. by W. from Halesworth. Spelt Sibheton, Ipm.; 
Sihhetone, R.B.; Sibeton, H.R.; Sibbetuna, D.B., p. G4 ; Sibetuna, 
D.B., p. 24. For A.S. Sibban tun; meaning ' Sibba's farm.' 
Sibba is a known name. 


SoMERLEYTON. N.W. of Lowestoft. " For shortness called 
Somerley " (Kirby). Spelt Somerleton, H.R. ; Sumerledetuna, 
D.B., pp. 6, 7. The form Somerledeton is in Thorpe, Diplo- 
mat., p. 583. From A.S. Sumerlidan tun. Sumerlidan is the 
gen. of Sumerlida, occurring in the A.S. Chronicle to mean 
a summer-expedition, or a band of Danes who landed in the 
summer for plunder. But it properly refers to an individual 
member of such a band, and it is best to consider it so here. 
That is, sumerlida means a sailor, mariner, or one who sails 
over sea for plunder ; such a one might afterwards settle down. 
The sense is, practically, that of pirate ; and we might here 
explain the place-name as ' pirate's farm ' ; meaning by ' pirate ' 
one who had once been a rover. 

SoTHERTON. Two miles to the S. of Brampton. Spelt 
Suthei-ton, H.R,; Sudretuna, D.B., p. 303. For A.S. suthra 
tun ; where suthra is the comparative of suth, south, and means 
' more to the south.' The sense is ' farm more to the south ' ; 
perhaps with reference to Brampton, which is due N. of it, and 
is a larger place. See Sotterley. 

Sproughton. W. of Ipswich. Spelt Sproutou, Ipm., T.N. ; 
Sproutune, H.R. It has lost an s ; for Copinger also cites the 
forms Spi'oiiston, Sproustun, Sproxton, Sproxtun. From A.S. 
Sprotues tun ; the sense being ' Sprow's farm.' Sprow is a 
known name. 

Stanton. Stanton St John's and Stanton All Saints are 
to the N.E. of Ix worth. Spelt Stanton, H.R. ; Stantuna, D.B., 
p. 94. A.S. stantun, i.e. ' stone farm.' 

Stuston. Spelt Stufton (error for Stiistor^), H.R. ; Stutes- 
tuna, D.B., p. 180. Copinger also gives Stouston, Stutestun. 
For A.S. Stutes tun ; i.e. ' Stut's farm.' The A.S. stut, 
prov. E. stout, means ' a gnat, a midge ' ; but it is here a 
personal name. 

Stutton. Near the N. bank of the Stour. Spelt Stutton, 
H.R. ; Stuton, H.R. ; Stutone, Ipm.; Stuttima, D.B., p. 279; 
Stottuna (with o for u), D.B., p. 31. A compound word; 


answering to A.S. stut-tun, lit. ' ,stout-f;xrm.' The prov. E. 
stout means ' a gnat, a midge ' ; as if it were a farm infested 
with midges. Prof. Moorman gives the same explanation of 
Stutton in the W. Riding, and explains Midgley as ' midge- 
lea.' See Stuston. 

Sutton. S. by E. from Woodbridge. Spelt Suttuna, D.B., 
p. 25 ; Suthtuna, D.B., p. 78. A.S. Suth-tun ; the sense is 
' south farm ' ; perhaps with reference to Woodbridge. 

Tannington. N.W. of Framlingham. An altered form ; 
for Tattenton. Spelt Tatingtoii, H.R. ; but Tatintuna, D.B., 
p. 95. The latter represents A.S. Tatan-tuii] the sense is 
' Tata's farm.' Of the name Tata there are eleven examples. 

Tattingstone. S. of Ipswich. Spelt Tattingeston, Ipm. ; 
Tatingeston, T.N. ; Tatingstun, H.R. ; Tatyngeston, Ipm. Copinger 
gives many spellings, but it is difficult to know whether they 
belong to this place or to Tanniugton. The spellings above 
answer to an A.S. form Tatinges tun ; lit. ' farm of Tating,' or 
' of the son of Tata.' There is also a form Tatting, as in Tatting- 
snad ; Birch, C.S., i. 295. 

Theberton. Near the E. coast; N. of Leiston. Spelt 
Theherton, H.R. ; Ipm. Copinger notes the form Thehaston ; 
and no doubt an s (or -es) has been lost, so that it represents 
Theberteston. And Thebert is a very late form of the A.S. 
name Theodbeorht, 0. Merc. Theodberht or Thedhert. The sense 
is ' Theodbeorht's farm.' 

Thorington. S.E. of Halesworth. Spelt Thoriton, H.R. ; 
Thuritune, H.R. ; Torentuna (with T for Th), D.B., p. 24. For 
A.S. Thoran-tun ; as the g is evidently a later insertion. The 
name Thora is recorded as being that of a daughter of Thor- 
berg, and wife of Harald Hardrada ; but the A.S. form would 
be There, with the fem. nom. ending. The name Thora (gen. 
Thoran) would be the corresponding masculine. We may as- 
sume the masc. form as being more likely here ; and the sense 
is then 'Thora's farm.' But an A.S. form Thora does not occur; 
and it can only be regarded as an Anglicised form of the O. 


Norse Thori, variant of Thuri, a common Scandinavian name, 
of which there is an example in Kemble, Cod. Dipl., iv. 71, 
1. 14 ; and Thuri seems to be merely a reduced form of Thurir, 
which is a very old Scandinavian name and very common. See 
Bjorkman, p. 158; Rygh, p. 259. Hence Thorington is ulti- 
mately of Norse origin. In Bardsley's Surnames, s.v. Thor, is 
an instance of a late form of Thori, in the entry " Orm iil. 
Thore'; dated 1179 (from the Pipe Rolls). 

Thrandeston. N. of Eye. Spelt Thrandestuna, D.B., p. 135. 
The late A.S. form is Thrandeston; in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 580. 
Evidently the prefix is the gen. of Thrand, a name not recorded 
as being of English origin, though Thrond is given as being 
that of a Dane.. Of Norse origin ; Rygh gives the 0. Norse 
name Throndr or TJirandr as occurring in numerous place-names. 
We may drop the formative r of the masc. nom. ; this gives, as 
the sense, ' Thrand's farm.' 

Thurlston, Thurleston. The church of Whittou-cum- 
Thurlston is between Whitton and Thurlston (or Thurleston) ; 
to the N. by W. from Ipswich. Spelt Thurliston, Ipm., p. 258 ; 
but Turoluestuna, D.B., p. 29 (with T for Th). For the A.S. 
Thurulfes tun, also appearing as Turolfes tun. Really of Norse 
origin; the prefix is due to the O. Norse personal name Thuriilf, 
Thorolf, or Thorulf] the original O. Norse nominative of which 
appears as Thorolfr or Thuridfr ; corresponding to the A.S. 
Thurwidf. Hence the sense is ' Thorolfr's farm ' ; and we have 
here a clear example of Norse influence. See Bjorkman, p. 102. 

Thurston. To the E. of Bury. Spelt Thurston, T.N. ; 
Torstuna, D.B., p. 8. For A.S. Thures tun ; i.e. ' Thur's farm.' 
Thur (as in Thursday) is a form of Thor ; and Thur- occurs, as 
the former element, in many A.S. names. 

There was also a Thurstanestun or ' Thurstan's farm ' in 
Suffolk. But there is nothing to show whether it was Thurston. 
They seem to differ. 

Troston. N.W. of Ixworth. Spelt Troston, Ipm.; Trostuna, 
D.B., p. 172. Copinger records the form Throston, which is 
evidently nearer to the original. But further, the syllable -ing- 


must be restored, as the dat. form Trostingtune occurs in Birch, 
C.S., iii. 630, in ^Ifhelm's Will. This takes ns back to the 
original form Throstinga tun. From the Norse personal name 
ThrOstr (lit. ' thrush '), which yielded several place-names be- 
ginning with Trost- or Troste- ; see Rygh. The sense is ' farm 
of the sons of Throstr.' 

Ubbeston. S.W. of Halesworth. Spelt Uhheston, H.R. ; 
Huhheston (with H wrongly prefixed), T.N. ; Upbestuna (with 
pb for bb), D.B., p. 269. Tlie gen. Ubbes suggests a nom. Ubb, 
not an A.S. name, but borrowed from the Danish Ubbi, recorded 
by Rygh as being specifically Danish, not Icelandic. The sense 
is ' Ubbi's farm.' 

Walton. N. of Felixstowe. Also (later) known as Walton 
St Felix, because a monastery of St Felix was built there ; see 
Felixstowe (above). Spelt Waletoii, H.R. ; Waletima, D.B., 
p. 118. The corresponding A.S. form is Weala tun, the 'farm 
(or enclosure) of the Welshmen ' ; from the nom. sing. Wealh, 
a foreigner, a Welshman. The same explanation applies to the 
two Waltons in the W. Riding. In no way connected with E. 

Wenhaston. Between Halesworth and Blythburgh. Spelt 
Wenhaston, H.R., Ipm. ; but Wenadestuna, D.B., p. 24. The 
prefix occurs in an A.S. charter, in Birch, C.S., ii. 529, as 
Wikneardes and Weneardes ; it is spelt both ways in the same 
line. In both cases an h has been dropped, and the right form 
of the nom. is Wenheard. The sense is ' Wenheard's ferm ' ; or, 
in Mercian spelling, ' Wenhard's farm.' 

Westleton. Spelt TFes^^e^o/i, H.R.; Ipm.; Westletuna,T>.B., 
p. 66; but Westlentuna, D.B., p. 63; Westledestuna, D.B., p. 319. 
The last is the fullest form, and must be selected. Westledes 
represents an A.S. west-leodes, gen. of luest-leod, a compound 
word. Leod means ' a man ' ; and ivest-leod is ' a man from the 
west.' (Note that, in Beda's Eccl. Hist., iv. 1, the A.S. trans- 
lation has the gen. pi. east-leoda, i.e. ' of men from the east,' 
where the Latin original has orientalium.) The meaning is 
'farm of the man from the west.' 


Weston. Spelt Weston, H.R. ; Westuna, D.B., p. 4. The 
sense is ' west town ' or "' west farm.' It is W. of Ellough. 

Whitton. To the N. of Ipswach. Spelt Whitington, Ipm., 
p. 2.58. Copinger cites several equivalent forms, such as Wlii- 
tinton, Whittington, Whytingtone, Whytyngton; showing that the 
name has been contracted. It is the same name as Whittington 
in Wore, spelt Huitingtun in an A.S. charter ; in Birch, C.S., i. 
497. The full A.S. form is HtuUinga tun ; the sense is ' farm of 
the Whitings ' or ' of the sons of White.' 

Winston. S. of Debenham. Spelt Wynestou, H.K.; Wines- 
tima, D.B., p. 36. But Copinger also cites Winerston, Wynerston ; 
so that there was once an r before the s. This represents the 
A.S. genitive Wynheres, as occurring in Wynheres stig ; in 
Birch, C.S., i. 334, footnote 5. Wynhere is a known name. The 
sense is ' Wynhere's farm.' 

Wiston, or WissiNGTON ; near Nayland, Of course the 
latter is the older form. Spelt Wysinton, H.R. But this is 
shortened from a much more complex name, as we learn from 
iElfflffid's Will, in Birch, C.S.,iii,602, where we find Wiswythetun 
mentioned in connexion with Lavenliam (about 11 miles from 
Wiston in a direct line), Bildeston (at the same distance from it), 
and Polstead (within four miles of it). There is thus a pre- 
sumption that Wiston and Wysinton (in H.R.) are shortened 
forms of Wiswythetun. Copinger also cites Wisweton as a form 
of Wiston, which clearly points to the same form. If we accept 
this hypothesis, we must enquire into its meaning. It is not 
derived from a personal name, but is descriptive. Wis may be 
explained as short for the A.S. ivisc, ' a meadow,' a Avord dis- 
cussed in the Phil. Soc. Trans., 1895-8, p. 542 ; and tuithe is 
for withig, a withy or Avillow. The sense will then be ' farm of 
the field- willow.' For luisc, see Birch, C.S., ii. 412. 

WooLVERSTONE. Near the S.W. bank of the Orwell. Spelt 
Wlferstun (for Wiilfei^stun), H.R. ; Vlverestuna (with V for U), 
D.B., p. 30; Hulferestuna (with H wrongly prefixed), D.B., 
p. 279. These represent the A.S. Wulfheres tun; and the sense 
is ' Wulfhere's farm.' Wulfhere was a very common name. 


WORLINGTON. Near Mildeuhall. Spelt Wredelington, U.K.; 
Wredlingto)i, Ipm. ; Wiriiintona, D.B., p. 149. Copingcr also 
cites Wridelyngton, WretJtelijngton, WritJielingtoii, Wredelgnge- 
ton, &c. The prefix evidently represents a tribal name, of which 
the gen. pi. appears as Wredelinga, Wridelinga, Wrethelinga, or 
Writhelinga. But all of these are unknown forms. The sense 
is ' farm of the Wrethelings or Writhelings,' or ' of the sons of 
Wrethel or Writhel.' 

Wyverstone. W. by N. from Mindlesham. Spelt Wivers- 
ton, Ipm.; Wiiiertestuna (with t for th), D.B., pp. 57, oil; 
Wiuerthestuna, D.B., p. 82. The prefix represents the A.S. 
Wlferihes, gen. of Wlfertli, more correctly spelt Wigfrith. The 
sense is * Wigfrith's farm.' 

47. Tree. 

Tree, in the usual sense, occurs in Pettistree and Thed- 

Pettistree. Spelt Petistre, Ipm. Ipm. has also the form 
Fettes-ho. The forms Peott, Piott, and Piot, all given by 
Sweet, in his Oldest English Texts, p. 536, may be considered 
as Kentish variants of Pet, and so help to establish that form. 
Hence the sense is 'Pet's tr6e.' See Wright, O.E. Grammar, 
§ 93. The form Patta occurs in Birch, C.S., iii. 632, and may 
be related. 

Thedwestry. This is the name of a hundred ; and no 
doubt the hundred met at a particular tree that was known 
by this name. Spelt Thedwastre, Ipm. ; Thedtvardistre, H.R. ; 
Theivardestreu, D.B., p. 8; TJieodivardestreo, D.B., p. 162. 
Copinger also gives Thedwardestre, Thediuardstree. The A.S. 
form is Theodweardes-treo ; O. Merc, Theodwardes-treo ; from 
the personal name Tlieodward. The sense is ' Theodward's tree.' 

48. Wade. 

Wade represents the A.S. iuced, a ford, shallow water ; 
cognate with L. uadum. It occurs in Cattawade. 

Cattawade. Copinger gives, as old spellings, Cataiuade, 
Gattiwade. Cata is precisely the O. Norse Kata, gen. of Kati, 


a known name, whence some known places are derived (E,ygh). 
The sense is ' Kati's ford.' Kati is masculine. Cattawade is a 
hamlet of Brantham, near the Stour. 

49. Well. 

Well, in the usual sense, occurs in Badwell Ash, Bardwell, 
Bradwell, Brightwell, Bromeswell, Elmswell, Eriswell, Herrings- 
well, Orwell, Sizewell, and Wordwell ; eleven examples. 

Badwell Ash. Three miles due N. of Elmswell station, 
and near Great Ashfield. Copinger gives, as other names, 
Ashfeld parva and Badewelle Asfelde. Badewelle represents 
the A.S. Badan wella, i.e. ' Bada's well.' Bada is a known 
name. Cf. Bcedewyllan ; Birch, C.S., iii. 240 (bottom). 

Bardwell. N. of Ixworth. Spelt Berdeivell, T.N., H.R. ; 
Berdeivella, D.B., p. 221; Beordewella, D.B., p. 171. The forms 
point directly to an A.S. form Beordan wella, i.e. 'Beorda's well.' 
No instance of the name Beorda is known ; but it may be 
related to, or an error for, the known form Bearda, which occurs 
in Beardan-lg, in the A.S. Chronicle, and in Bardan-lg (the 
0. Merc, form) in the Life of St Oswald by iElfric. 

Bradwell. To the S. by W. of Yarmouth. Spelt Brade- 
well, H.R. ; answering to the A.S. cet thdm hrddan luellan, i.e. 
'at the broad well.' Cf. Bradfield. There are at least six 
Brad wells. 

Brightwell. Near Bucklesham ; S. of Martlesham. Also 
known as Brightwell-cum-Foxhall. Spelt Brihtewella, D.B., 
p. 211 ; for A.S. cet thdm beorhtan wellan, lit. 'at the bright (or 
clear) well.' 

Bromeswell. Near Melton. Spelt Brumesiuelle, Ipm. 
(which has also such forms as Brumfeld, Brumlegh) ; Brumes- 
uelle, D.B., p. 214; Bromeswella, D.B., p. 25; Brameswella, D.B., 
p. 75. Of the three forms in D.B., we must select the first, as 
agreeing with Ipm. ; whilst the second can be accounted for by 
the fact that Norman scribes frequently wrote om for um when 
the a is short. The third form, with a, must be wrong, as it 
suits neither the old nor the modern spellings. 


The name Brum occurs in Searle ; and we may conclude 
that the A.S. form must have been Brumes-wella, meaning 
' Brum's well.' The modern spelling was probably affected by 
the influence of A.S. hrom, ' broom ' ; i.e. the plant so called. 
This was certainly the case with Bromsgrove (Wore), which 
really means ' Brem's grove,' as the old spellings prove ; see 
Duignan's Place-Names of Worcestershire. 

Elmswell. Spelt Elmeswell, H.R. ; Elmeswellan, D.B., 
p. 168. Here Elmes cannot refer to elm (the tree), as that 
would have formed the compound Elmwell. The presence of 
-es shows that Elmes represents the gen. case of a proper name, 
which has certainly been contracted. It must be short for 
Elmeres, which occurs in Birch, C.S., iii. 58, 1. 4 from bottom, 
and is also spelt Almeres in the last line of the page. Elmeres 
or Almeres represents JElm,eres, a later form oi JElfmares ; and 
the oldest form of Elmswell must have been j^lfmd'ves wella, 
i.e. ' ^Elfmier's well' There is an Elmsall in Yorkshire, which 
similarly represents an A.S. ^Ifmwres halh, i.e. ' ^Elfmier's 
haugh.' This is Prof Moorman's explanation in his Place- 
Names of the West Riding. 

Eriswell. Spelt Erswelle, T.N. ; Ersivell, H.P. ; Heres- 
wella (with H wrongly prefixed), D.B., p. 244. Evidently a 
contracted form, as shown by the spelling Everesivell in Ipm., 
p. 6. Everes represents the O. Merc. Eferes, A.S. Eoferes, gen. 
of Ejer, Eofer, personal name, the literal sense being ' a boar ' ; 
and it is cognate with L. aper. The meaning is ' Efer's well.' 
Compare Eversden, Cambs, ; Eversley, Hants. 

Herringswell. Spelt Heringeswell, Ipm. ; Haringwell, 
T.N. ; but older forms are Hernigaiuella, D.B., p. 223 ; Hern- 
ingawella, D.B., p. 235 ; Eyrningwella, D.B., p. 156. As D.B. 
sometimes has e for A.S. y, these forms all. come from an A.S. 
Hyrninga wella, i.e. ' Hyrnings' well,' or ' well of the Hyrniugs ' 
or ' of the sons of Hyrn ' ; or, possibly, ' of Horn.' At any rate, 
Hyrning is a similar name to Horning; for which see HORN- 

G. A. S. Octavo Series. No. XLVI. 8 


Orwell. The name of a river ; but the river was named 
from a well from which it took its rise ; and Orwell, Carabs., 
occurs as a place-name. The Cambs. place-name represents an 
A.S. oran-iuella, where oran is the combining form of ora, 
a border, brink, edge, or margin ; and the sense is ' well beside 
the brink,' or 'well beneath a brink.' In the A.S. Chronicle, 
there is mention of a river Arvje (i.e. 'arrow'), which is sup- 
posed to be the Orwell. It may be the same river but it is 
not the same name. 

SIZEV7ELL. A hamlet in the parish of Leiston. It is due 
E. of Leiston, and on the coast. I know of no old spelling ; but 
Copinger quotes Siswell. Cf. Siston, Glouc. The A.S. form 
was probably Sisan luella, i.e. ' Sisa's well.' The A.S. Sisa is 
implied in the form Siso, quoted in Searle from a foreign 

WoRDWELL. Two miles N.W. of Ingham station (Kelly). 
Spelt Wridewella, D.B., p. 172 ; Wride-ioella, Birch, C.S. iii. 
219, 1. 4. For A.S. wrida luella, 'well of the thicket,' or 'of 
(the clump of) young shoots ' ; where wrida is the gen. pi. of 
wrld. The A.S. wrld is the pro v. E. ride, 'the quantity of wood 
growing from one stump, a root-stock in coppice.' ' A ride of 
hazle, &c., is a whole plump of sprigs growing out of one root.' 
Particularly used of the hazel ; cf. A.S. hcesel-wrid, ' hazel-ride.' 

50. WicH, Wick. 

The suffix -wich or -luick represents the A.S. wic, a dwelling; 
hence, a village. It occurs in Dunwich, Hardwick, Ipswich, and 

Dunwich. Spelt Donewic, T.N.; H.R.; Dunemdc, D.B,, 
p. 62. A trisyllabic form ; representing the A.S. Dunan wlc, 
i.e. ' Duna's village.' The name Duna occurs in Dunan-heafod 
and Dunan-hyl (both in Kemble). It is possible that the name 
was suggested by an older one. Beda, Hist. Eccl. ii. 15, has 
"in ciuitate Domnoc"; for which the A.S. version has "on 
Dommocceastre." Domnoc is not English ; but may be Celtic. 


In fact, we are told that it is so in McClure's British Place- 
names, p, 173, note 1, where it is said that Dumnoc involves 
a term meaning ' deep,' with -oc as an adjectival termination ; 
i.e. (as I suppose) the sense is 'deepish '; and it signifies 'a port 
with a deep-water approach.' The base is the Indo-germanic 
*dubnos, *dumnos, 'deep,' whence the Old Irish fn-domain, 
'deep,' Welsh dwfn (fern, dofn); see Stokes-Fick, Wortschatz 
der keltischen Spracheinheit, p. 153. 

Hardwick. a new parish, one mile W. b}^ S. from Bury 
(Kelly). Spelt Herdwice, R.B. ; Hereivic, H.R. Herdewic 
answers to the A.S. Heordewlcum, dat. pi. ; spelt Heordeivican 
in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 594 ; for the A.S. wtc was frequently 
used in the pi., as meaning ' dwellings.' The A.S. heorde is the 
gen. of heorde, a herd, a flock. The sense is ' herd-dwellings ' 
or ' herd-village.' The place referred to in Thorpe is Hardwick 
in Northants. The derivation from the dat, pi. may explain 
why the suffix remains as tuick, and did not become luich. 

Ipswich. Spelt Gipeswiche, later Gippewich, Ipm.; Gipeiuic, 
H.R.; Gypeswich, Robert of Gloucester; Gipeswiz, D.B., p. 19 
(with z = ts, for ch). A.S. Gipes wTc; A.S. Chronicle, an. 993 
(Parker MS.) ; where Gipes is the gen. of Gipi (later Gipe), 
a name not otherwise known. Thus the sense is 'Gipi's village.' 
The G before i was pronounced as mod. E. y, and the former 
i was short ; so that Gipi was pronounced yippy. The Norman 
disliked initial y before i, and dropped it. Hence it took the 
sound of Ippy's luich, and finally Ipswidi. 

Walberswick. Spelt Walberdeswyk, H.R. Other spellings 
in Copinger do not tell us any more ; but the A.S. equivalent 
form is obvious, viz. Wealhheorhtes wlc ; O. Merc. Walhberhtes 
tulc. Wealhheorht occurs three times, and in two instances is 
also found as Walhert. The sense is ' Walhberht's village.' Or 
-wick may have been derived from the dat. pi. wlcuni; see 

51. Wold. 

Wold represents the O. Merc, wald, A.S. weald, a wood, 
forest ; just as old is from O. Merc, aid, A.S, eald. Many wolds 



have lost their trees, and are now bare. The only Suffolk 
example is Southwold. 

SoUTHWOLD. S]ie\t Suthwold, iT^m., H.'R.; Suthwald,'S..'R.; 
Sudwolda, D.B., p. 182 (with d for voiced th). From A.S. silth, 
south ; the sense is obvious. 

52. Wood. 

Only in Hazlewood ; two miles N.W. of Aldeburgh station 
(Kelly). The sense is obvious. 

53. Worth. 

Worth is related to mod. E. worth, value ; and meant 
a property, holding, farm, an enclosed homestead. The A.S. 
form is worth. Examples are : Braiseworth, Chelsworth, 
Dunningworth, Halesworth, Hepworth, Ickworth, Ixworth, 
Timworth, Worlingworth. 

Braiseworth, or Brayes worth. Spelt Breisworth in 
Kirby. S. of Eye. Spelt Bryseworth, H.R. ; Breseworth, Ipm. ; 
Briseworde, D.B., p. 80. Copinger also notes forms beginning 
with Brayss, Breis, Bres. The use of y, e, i after Br points to 
the A.S. 2/ or y; and suggests a form *Brysan, gen. of *Brysa. 
That there was such a name is further supported by the occur- 
rence of such place-names as Bris-ley, Bris-ton, Norf ; and still 
more by the forms Bruse-lowe, Bris-ingham, Brise-rvike in the 
index to Ipm. I suggest the sense ' Brysa's farm.' Cf. A.S. 
brysan, to bruise. 

Chelsworth. Near Bildeston. Spelt Ghelesworth, H.R. ; 
but Cerleswrda, D.B., p. 176. The D.B. form answers to A.S. 
Ceorles wyrth; Birch, iii. 312; which refers to this very place. 
Ceorles is the gen. of A.S. ceorl, a husbandman, countryman. 
The sense is ' husbandman's farm ' ; lit. ' churl's farm.' 

Dunningworth. Tunstall-cum-Dunningworth ; near Alde- 
burgh. Duniworda, D.B., p. 130. Copinger gives the forms 
Donyngivorthe, Dimnyngivorthe. For A.S. Dunninga wyrth ; i.e. 
' farm of the Dunnings' or 'of the sons of Dunn.' Both Dunn 
and Dunning are known names, 


Halesworth. So spelt; H.R. ; T.N. ; Ipm. D.B. has 
Halesuuorda, p. 25 ; and Healesuurda, p. 87. Tlic name 
Halington (prob. Hallington, Lines.) oeeurs in Bireh, C.S. 
i. 453 (bottom); with referenee to a tribe or family of Halings ; 
from a proper name *H8el or *HaI, not otherwise known. The 
sense may be ' Huel's farm.' 

Hepworth. Spelt Hepwrth, H.R. ; Hepworda, D.B., p. 170. 

Copinger also has Hepeivorth, Hipeiuorth. There does not seem 
to be any reason why the prefix may not be the A.S. lieope, 
M.K hepe, a hip, i.e. the fruit of the dog-rose. The sense may 
be ' hip-worth,' or ' farm of wild roses.' There is a Hepworth in 
Yks., for which D.B. has Heppeword. Cf. Heope-bricge, lit. 
'hip-bridge'; Birch, C.S., iii. 567, 1. 4. 

ICKWORTH. Near Horningsheath. Spelt Ikeiuorth, Ipm. ; 
kkeivortha, D.B., p. 154, where / is omitted by mistake. Spelt 
Iccaworth in a late A.S. charter, Kemble, iv. 222, 1. 2. For Iccan- 
worth ; Iccan is the gen. of Icca, and occurs in Iccan-ora (ill spelt 
Iccannore), in Birch, C.S., i. 99. The sense is ' Icca's farm.' 

IxwoRTH. N.E. of Bury. Spelt Ixewortlie, R.B. ; Ixeiurth, 
H.R. ; Ixewr'Q, D.B., p. 174; Copinger also has Giswortha, 
Gyscewurde. It is the A.S. Gyxeiveorth; Birch, C.S., iii. 219. 
The prefix must have been, originally, a weak genitive, and the 
vowel must have been i, not y ; for G remains hard before y, 
but is lost before i Hence the original form must have been 
Gixan-iuearth ; and the sense is ' Gixa's farm ' ; where Gixa 
represents Gisca. Gisca may stand for *Giseca, a diminutive 
of Gisa, which is a known name. Cf. Gis-wulf. 

TiMWORTH. N. of Bury. Spelt Timwrtha, D.B., p. 1G5 ; 
Timeworda, D.B., p. 221. For Tlman lueorth; and the sense 
is ' Tima's farm.' Tima is a known name. 

WORLING WORTH. Spelt Wirlingwo7'th,R.U.; Wyrlingwortlm, 
D.B,, p. 175. But Copinger also has Weiring lurthe, Wilrincga- 
wertha, so that the rl was once Ir. The A.S. form Wilrincga- 
wyrth is in Thorpe, Diplomat., p. 567. Wilrincga is short for 


Wilheringa ; and the sense is ' farm of the Wilherings,' or ' of 
the family of Wilhere.' Wilhere is a known name, Cf 
Wilheringa (for Wilheringa wic) ; Birch, C.S., ii. 141. 

54. Yard. 

From A.S. geard, an enclosure. It occurs in Bruisyard. 

Bruisyard. N.W. of Saxmundham. Spelt Bursyard, H.R.; 
Bursyerd, Ipm. ; Buresiart, D.B., pp. 83, 117. The evidence 
seems to be conclusive as to the fact that an older form was 
Burxs-geard. Biires is certainly a much contracted form, but, 
fortunately, it is easy to restore it by comparison with Burslem 
(Staffs.) and Buscot (Berks.). In the former, Burs- represents 
the O. Merc. Burgwardes, A.S. Burgiueardes, see Duignan, 
Place-Names of Staffs. ; and in the latter. Bus- is short for 
Burs-, and represents the same prefix ; see my Place-Names of 
Berks. Hence we may explain Bruisyard as representing 
' Burhward's yard ' or ' enclosure.' 

55. Some other names. 

Having thus considered the names which certainly seem to 
be compounds, with known suffixes, I consider first Cornard, 
which is of like formation, and lastly some names that are of 
different or uncertain formation, and cannot well be included 
in the foregoing sets. 

Cornard. To the E. of Sudbury ; called Great Cornard 
there is also Little Cornard, not far off. Spelt Cornerth, T.N. 
Cornerd, H.R. ; Gornerthe, H.R. ; Gornerda, D.B., p. 159 
Gornierda, D.B., pp. 12, 223. The forms with th must be the 
more original ; and of these we may take Cornerth as the type. 
The former part of the word is corn (A.S. corn) ; the latter part 
is probably not the A.S. eorthe, mod. E. earth, but the rarer 
A.S. earth, plough-land, not given in the A.S. Dictionarj^, 
because it is commoner in the ' modified ' form ierth or yrth 
or irth ; see irth in Bosworth and Toller, and earth (2) in 
N.E.D. The actual form earth (dat. eai^the) occurs in Birch, 


C.S., ii. 195, ]. 22 ; and in the compound earth-land in Birch, 
C.S., i. 502, 1. 6 (with medwe-land, i.e. meadow-land, in the 
following line) ; and again in the same, ii. 40, 1. 4 from the 
bottom. The sense is 'plough-land for corn.' The form 
Cornierda in D.B. may be compared with the compound 
for-ierth in Birch, C.S., ii. 255, 1. 14. If this be right, we 
may add it to the list of compounds ; for which reason I place 
it here. 

Barrow. A well-known word, meaning a funeral mound 
or tumulus, or sometimes simply a hill ; from the M.E, berwe, 
herewe, A.S. heorge, dat. of heorh (O. Merc. herJi), a hill, 
a barrow. 

Beccles. Spelt Beccles, H.R. ; Becles, T.N. ; D.B., pp. 6, 
178. We may also compare Beclinge, Ipm. ; Becclinga, D.B., 
p. 116 ; where Beccling is a patronymic, formed from the name 
Beccel. Beccles is the gen. of Beccel ; and stands alone as 
indicating the name of the possessor of the original settlement ; 
just as we might call a farm Smith's, meaning Smith's farm. 
Hence the sense is ' Beccel's,' meaning a settlement of Beccel. 
In the A.S. Life of St Guthlac, ch. vii., there is mention of 
' Beccel the priest.' 

Beck Row. A hamlet of Mildenhall. The prov. E. heck 
means ' a small stream ' ; from the O. Norse bekker, a brook. 
" Towards the Fens [near Mildenhall] are several large Streets 
as big as ordinary Towns, called by the Inhabitants, Rows ; as 
West Row, Beck Row, and Holywell Row"; Kirby. 

BOULGE. Spelt Bulge, Ipm. ; Bidges, D.B., pp. 77, 134. 
The name must have been quite recent, at the time of the 
compilation of D.B. in 1086. It is obviously not of English, 
but of Norman origin ; and D.B. preserves the correct form. 
Bulges is an Old Norman plural, answering to a later 0. French 
houges, given by Godefroy s.v. Bouge, s.m. 'terrain inculte et 
couvert de petites brandes.' It therefore signifies 'lands not 
yet cultivated, but covered with heather.' 


Brome, or Broome. Pronounced as E. broom. S. by W. of 
Diss. Spelt Brom, D.B., pp. 59, 117. The njod. E. broom; as 
a plaut-name. Broom was there abundant. 

BuRES St Mary. On the Stour ; W. of Nayland. A bridge 
across the river leads to Bures in Essex, Spelt Bures, H.R., 
T.N., Ipm. ; Bare, D.B., p. 223. The A.S. bur, a bower, cottage, 
was masc. ; with the pi. buras. But this would have given 
a mod. E. Bowers. The preservation of a long u only takes 
place in words of French origin. The right explanation seems 
to be that it is an Old Norman bures, pi. of bure, which was not 
a word of Latin origin, but merely borrowed from the O.H.G. 
and A.S. bur. The forms bur, bure, are given as modern Norman 
words in Moisy's Diet, of the Norman dialect ; and he quotes 
the Lat. form bui-us from a Caen chartulary; adding that 
Norman also possesses the dimin. buron, a hut. This only 
affects the phonology, not the sense. We may explain Bures 
to mean ' bowers,' i.e. a collection of cottages or huts. In the 
A.S. Chron., an. 1094, we find mention of a 'castel set Bures,' 
i.e. a castle at Bures in Normandy, in the department of Seine 
Inferieure. This is a proof that Bures is Norman. 

Capel. S.E. of Hadleigh. Kelly names Capel St Mary 
and Capel St Andrew. Spelt Capele, H.E. ; Capeles, D.B., 
p. 25. It is interesting to see that D.B. uses the plural. The 
word is Norman ; capeles is the pi. of capele, a chapel. The 
F. chapelle is capele in Old Norman ; the latter form occurs 
in La Chanson de Roland, 1. 52. Tlie Welsh form is capel, 
not capele. 

Clare. Spelt Clare, H.R. ; Ipm ; Claram (Lat. ace), D.B., 
p. 218, From the A.S. Clare, a personal name; a witness bearing 
this name signs an A.S. charter dated A.D. 949 ; Birch, C.S., iii. 
38. It can hardly have been a true A.S. name ; it was very 
likely borrowed from L. cldrus, illustrious. Earls of Clare took 
their name from this place, 

COLNEIS. The name of a hundred, which comprised the 
land lying between the rivers Orwell and Deben. Spelt 
Colneise, Colneyse, II,R. ; Colneyse, Ipm. D.B. has Colenese, 


p. 118; Colenesse, p. 2*3. This is a name of extraordinary 
difficulty ; and I can only guess at it. The forms -nese, -nesse 
may represent the dat. of the A.S. ness, a promontory, a head- 
land ; while -neise, -neyse may be the O. Norse nesi, dat. of the 
O.N. nes, with the same sense. The hundred of Colness does, 
in fact, consist of one long headland, which narrows down to 
Langer Point. The name, accordingly, is ' Col-ness ' ; where the 
sense of Col- is not known. But both Cole and Colne are 
river-names, and either will suit. I suggest that one or other 
of these names was the old name of the Deben ; it has been 
shown above that Deben is a new name, due to the place-name 

Combs. S. of Stowmarket. Spelt Combes, Ipm. ; Gambes, 
T.N. ; Camhas, D.B., p. 21. Cambas is precisely the A.S. 
cambas, pi. of camb, a comb, a crest, a top. The sense is 
' crests ' ; with reference, as I suppose, to hill-tops. The 
spelling with a shows that it is quite a different word from 
combe, a valley, so common in place-names. 

CoPDOCK. S.W. of Ipswich. Spelt Gopedok, H.R. ; Goppe- 
doc, H.R. ; Goppedock, Ipm. ; Goppedhak, T.N. Obviously for 
A.S. copped dc, a ' copped ' or pollarded oak. The sense is 
therefore 'pollard-oak.' In Birch, C.S., ii. 241, we have the 
same expression, but in the accusative case; 'on tha coppedan 
ac,' i.e. to the pollard oak. 

Cove. There is a North Cove and a South Cove, near 
Covehithe, which is between Lowestoft and Southwold. Cove 
is from the A.S. cofa, a cove, a cave, a place of shelter. The 
spelling Coua occurs in D.B., p. 25, 66. 

Ellough. S. by W. of Beccles. Kelly calls it Ellough, or 
Willingham All Saints, or Willoiigh. The last name seems 
to be a jumble of the other two. H.R. has Elr/ villa ; D.B., 
p. 6, has in Elga et in WillingaJtam. Copinger gives also the 
forms Elloiue and Helw. This difficult name can be fully 
explained by comparison with a name in Yorkshire. In York- 
shire Place-Names, by J. Horsfall Turner, p. 114, there is a note 
that a place now called Hellaby is spelt in D.B. as Elgebi 



(twice). The suffix -by shows that the prefix Elge- is Norse, 
and the fact that the modern name begins with H shows that 
this is a D.B. spelling of Helge-. Rygh shows that the O. Norse 
personal name Helgi is extremely common, and that a large 
number of place-names beginning with Helge- (including 
Helgeby) are derived from it. Moreover, Helge would regularly 
become Helwe in Mid. Eng. (cf. the form Heliu above), and 
would then necessarily become Hellow ; cf. mod. Yi. fellow from 
O. 'Norse felagi. The dropping of initial h in Norman is usual, 
because it was not pronounced ; and in this instance it has 
affected even the English form ; so that Hellow became Ellow, 
of which Ellough is a mere variant. This loss of h is aptly 
illustrated by the occurrence in Ipm. of a Lines, place-name 
that is spelt both as EUowe and as Hellowe ; without any modern 
equivalent. Hence the D.B. form Elga is exactly the O.N, 
Helga, gen. of Helgi ; and the sense is ' Helgi's,' i.e. ' Helgi's 

Eyke. N.E. of Woodbridge. Spelt -%A;e, Ipm. From O.N, 
eik, an oak ; gen. eikar, eikr, dat. eik. The sense is either ' oak,' 
or 'at the oak,' in the dative. The diphthong ey, representing 
Mid. Eng. ei, is characteristic of Norse. 

Groton. W. of Hadleigh. Spelt Groten, H.R. ; Grotene, 
Ipm. ; Grotma, D.B., pp. 13, 158. It is obvious that the suffix 
was not originally -ton, and that it must be otherwise explained. 
Note that the modern form should be Groten, as it is sometimes 
written. The nearest A.S. form is grot-an, nom, pi, of grata, 
prob. ' a particle of grit,' found in mere-grota, a sea-pebble, a 
pearl (see A.S. Diet.). The sense would then be ' sands ' or 
' gritty plains.' Cf. prov. E. greet, grit, gravel, also found in the 
forms grote, grute, grut ; and prov. E. gritten, adj. sandy. The 
form grot-en might be adjectival. 

HoxNE, The name of a hundred ; the modern village is 
near the Waveney, almost due N. of Debenham. Spelt Hoxene, 
H.R. ; Hoxana, D.B., p. 197. The form exactly answers to A.S. 
Hoxena, gen. pi. of a nom. pi. Hoxan, which might very well 
represent the name of a small tribe of settlers, just as we find 
mention of the Wixan (see the A.S. Dictionary), and of. the 


celebrated tribe of Seaxan. We may therefore explain the 
name as meaning * settlement of the Hoxan.' I owe this 
suggestion (which is to me convincing) to Mr A. Anseombe, 
whom I consulted in this instance. The modern pronunciation, 
as Hoxen, results from the loss of the inflectional -e. 

Iken. On the S. bank of the river Aide, ai\d almost due 
W. of Aldeburgh. Spelt Ikene, H.R.; T.N. ; Ykene, R.B., T.N. 
Here the form suggests an A.S. gen. pi. Iccena ; allied to the 
proper name Icca which occurs in ICKWORTH. The nom. pi. 
would be Iccan ; and the sense would be ' a settlement of the 
Iccan,' or ' of the followers of Icca.' Not from lea, with one 
c, as this would certainly give Iche. Cf. A.S. Icena, the river 

Landguard. " Landguard Fort stands on the extreme 
Western point of this parish " ; Kelly, s.v, Felixstow, The 
present name is an ingenious adaptation, as if it were a ' land- 
guard,' or a fort to guard the land, which is not a distinctive 
feature in forts ; they all do the same. In Philips' map it is 
Landger Point, where the latter syllable is -ge7\ In the 
Beauties of England, 1813, xiv. 235, it is Langnard, with the 
former syllable as La7i- ; and at p. 273 of the same we read 
that " here was a ridge, two miles along the sea, called Langer- 
ston, dangerous to ships"; so that in 1813 the name was really 
Langer or Langar, which may be compared with Langar in 
Notts. So also in Kirby, p. 91 : — " Langer-Fort, and not Land- 
guard Fort, as it is corruptly and vulgarly called." There is 
still a Langer Common (misspelt Landguard on Ordnance map) 
in Felixstowe parish. The etymology is easy, viz. from A.S. 
lang gdra, i.e. ' long gore,' which precisely describes it. A gore 
is a promontory, or a triangular piece of a land with a pointed 
end ; from A.S. gar, a spear, point. 

LoES. The name of a hundred. Spelt Lose, H.R. ; T.N. ; 
Losa, H.R. ; D.B., pp. 11, 215. It perhaps represents A.S. 
Hlossan, gen. of Hlossa, a personal name. We find it in 
Hlossan-ham ; in Birch, C.S., i. 207. If this be right, the 
sense refers to a settlement ' of Hlossa.' Cf. Hlos-hrycg, Hlos- 
wudu ; both in Kemble's Index, 


LoUND. N. by W, from Lowestoft. Spelt Lunda, D.B., 
p. 6. Ipm. has Lund, Lound (both in Notts.). Not English, 
but a well-known Norse word ; from O. Norse lundr, a grove ; 
cf. Lund in Sweden. The sense is ' grove.' 

Mellls (see p. 104). Spelt Melles, R.B. ; Ipm. ; D.B., p. 181. 
It is explained by comparing it with the prov. E. meal, " a 
sandbank or sand-hill, frequent in proper names: gen. in the 
plural " ; E.D.D. From Norvv. mel, a sandbank along a lake or 
river-course ; O. Norse melr, a sandbank overgrown with bent- 
grass, or gen. a sandbank whether overgrown or bare ; frequent 
in Icel. local names. 

Onehouse. Spelt Onhus, H.R.; Anhus, D.B., p. 160; Anehus, 
D.B., p. 311 ; Annhus (not Anuhus), D.B., p. 121. It is the A.S. 
dti h'lis, lit. ' one house.' It is now a hamlet of scattered houses, 
but there is still a Onehouse Hall. In the Beauties of England, 
1813, xiv. 210, we are told that "on the site of the old hall... 
a farmhouse has been built." Probably that old hall, or a much 
older house on the same site, was the original One House. 

Rede, or Reed. S.S.W. of Bury. Spelt Rede, Ipm, ; Reoda, 
D.B., p. 155 ; Reda, D.B., pp. 202, 222. For A.S. Readan ; as in 
Readan-clif, -cumb, -die, -flod, -ford, &c. ; all in Kemble's Index. 
Readan is the gen. case of Read, ' the Red,' still common as Reade, 
Read, Reid, &c. The sense is '(settlement) of the Red one.' 

Rishangles. S. by E. from Eye. Spelt Rishanggeles, Ipm.; 
but Risangra, D.B., p. 85. The prefix is A.S. rise, a rush. The 
suffix seems to be the A.S. hangra, of which the true sense is 
'a hanging wood on a hill-side'; see the Crawfurd Charters, 
p. 134. The sense is 'rushy slopes, with trees upon them.' 

Snape. N. of the Aide above Aldeburgh. Spelt Snape 
H.R. ; Snapes, D.B., p. 71. Cf. A.S. sncep, as in the following : 
lit o3 mearc andlang diin and sncep, ' out as far as the boundary 
along the down, &c.' ; the sense of sna^p being here unknown ; 
see Birch, C.S., iii. 362. But the E.D.D. has snape, ' a spring, 
a moist, boggy place in a field ' ; known in Dors., Som., and 
Devon. This may be the right explanation here as Snape is in 
a low situation. 


Stoven. N.W. of Southwold. Spelt Stoiine, D.B., p. 106, 
with w for v; Stouone, D.B., p. 251, with u for v. In the Cursor 
Mundi, 8036, is the line : — " Thai three stod on a stouen," they 
three stood on a stovin; where other MSS. have stalke, a stalk, 
or stocke, a stock. And the E.D.D. explains stovin, a stump or 
stake, the part of a hawthorn left in a hedge after ' splashing ' 
it ; Leicestershire. A.S. stofn, a stem, tree-stump ; Icel. stofn, 
a stump of a cut tree. This is a good example of the frequently 
trivial origin of a place-name. It merely means ' stump of a cut 

Thwaite. Near the river Dove ; S. by W. from Eye. A 
well-known word in the North ; from the O, Norse thiueit, a 
clearing in woods. So that the sense is ' a clearing.' It is 
chiefly remarkable for its occurrence so far to the South. There 
are two more Thwaites in Norfolk. 

Weybread. S.W. of Bungay. Spelt Weybred, H.R. ; Weij- 
bredd, Ipm. ; Weibrada, D.B., pp. 11, 98. A.S. wegbrwde, lit. 
* way-breadth,' i.e. the broad plant by the wayside ; a name for 
the common plantain, from its flat growth. It merely means 
' plantain.' 

WooLPiT. Between Bury and Stowmarket. Spelt Wulpet, 
H.R.; Wolpet, Wulpet, Ipm.; Wlpet, H.R.; Wlfpeta, D.B., p. 164. 
It answers to A.S. Widfpyt ; a wolf-pit ; a pit in which to catch 
wolves. The dat. pi. widfpyttun is in Birch, C.S., iii. 184. The 
sense is therefore ' wolf-pit.' We should particularly notice the 
dialectal (Suffolk) pet, in place of the A.S. pyt, E. pit. The 
same form, pet, occurs in Old Frisian ; and Widpet may have 
been due to Frisian influence. 

56. Concluding Remarks. 

Owing to the large number of place-names, this investiga- 
tion has necessarily taken up much space ; but room must be 
found for a brief statement of general results. 

The traces of Celtic are extremely slight, even among the 
river-names. The Kennet and the Ouse are of Celtic origin; 


but the Butley river was named from Butley ; the Deben from 
Debenham ; the Breton, afterwards shortened to Bret, from 
Brettenham; the Gipping, from Gipping ; the Thet, from 
Thetford ; the Box, from Boxford ; the Yox, from Yoxford ; 
and the Aide, from Aldeburgh. The Blythe, the Orwell, and 
the Waveney are clearly English in form. The Lark seems to 
have been made out of Lackford, and the Linnet is its playfully 
named companion. The Welshman, or ' foreigner,' is alluded to 
in Walpole, Walton, and Walsham. 

There were certainly Frisians settled in Suffolk, viz. at 
Freston, Friston, and Fressingfield. The Frisian e (for AS. a) 
is apparent in Bredfield ; it is even likely that the Frisian e (for 
A.S. y) is seen in Gedding, Hertest, Kedington, Nedging, and 
Woolpet (older form of Woolpit). 

The traces of Danes and Norsemen are not very numerous, 
but quite clear and decided. There are four names ending in 
-hy — Ashby, Barnby, Risby and Wilby ; Baylham probably 
contains the 0. Icelandic hceli, ' a farm.' Ingham contains the 
O.N. eng, a meadow ; and Kirkley and Kirton show the Norse 
form of 'church.' Bungay, Eyke, Lound, Thwaite are all 
Norse; and Norse names or prefixes occur in Blundeston, 
Cratfield, Drinkstone, Flixton, Gisleham, Grundisborough, 
Gunton, Hasketon, Kesgrave, Kettlebaston, Kettleburgh, Lax- 
field, Ringsfield, Ringshall, Risbridge, Thrandeston, Ubbeston, 
and Uggeston. There is a Norse suffix in Lowes-toft. 

Finally, there are even traces of Norman ; as in Boulge, 
Bures, and Capel ; and the -le- in Walsliam-le- Willows. 

As to the names that are purely English, they show decided 
traces of belonging to the Mercian or Midland dialect, as dis- 
tinguished from the Anglo-Saxon or Southern; which is a 
matter of no small importance. It shows that we may fairly 
include Suffolk amongst the rather limited number of counties 
that have helped to build up that East-Midland dialect which 
was destined to supersede all others and to become the speech 
of the empire. 


-acre, 4 
Acton, 92 

Akenhara, 48 
Aldborough, 7 
Alder ton, 93 
Aldham, 48 
Aldriugliam, 48 
Alpheton, 93 
Ampton, 93 
Ashbocliing, 71 
Ashby, 13 
Ashfield, 24 
Aspall, 42 
Assiugton, 93 
Athelington, 93 

Babergh Hundred, 5 

-bach, 4 

Bacton, 93 

Badingham, or Baddingham, 48 

Badley, 77 

Badwell Ash, 112 

Ballingdon, 18 

Bardwell, 112 

Barham, 48 

Barking, 71 

Barnaby or Barnby, 13 

Barnham, 48 

Baruingham, 49 

Barrow, 119 

Barsham, 49 

Barton, 94 

Battisford, 31 

Bawdsey, 21 

Baylham, 49 

Bealings, 71 

Beccles, 119 

-beck, 5 

Beck Row, 119 
Bedtield, 24 
Beduiglield, 25 
Belstead, 86 
Belton, 94 
Benacre, 4 
Benhall, 43 
Bentley, 77 
-bergh, 5 
Bergholt, 70 
Beyton, 94 
Bildeston, 94 
Blackbourn Hundred, 10 
Blakenham, 49 
Blaxball, 43 
Blundeston, 94 
Blythburgh, 7 
Blythford or Blyford, 31 
Blything Hundred, 72 
-borough, 6 
Bosmere Hundred, 82 
Botesdale, 15 
Boulge, 119 
-bourn, 10 
Boxford, 32 
Boxstead, 87 
Boyton, 94 
Bradfield, 25 
Bradley, 77 
Bradwell, 112 
Braisworth, 116 
Bramfield, 25 
Bramford, 32 
Brampton, 94 
Braudeston, 95 
Brandon, 18 
Brantham, 49 
Bredfield, 25 



Brettenbam, 49 

Bricett, Si 

-bridge, 10 

Brigbtwell, 112 

Brockford, 32 

Brockley, 77 

Brome, 120 

Bromeswell, 112 

-brook, 11 

Browstou, 95 

Bruisyard, 118 

Bruudisb, 20 

Bucklesbam, 49 

Bulcamp, 14 

Bungay, 21 

Bures St Mary, 120 

Burgate, 40 

Burgb (in Colneis Hundred, near 

Felixstowe), 6 
Burgh (Castle) on the Waveuey, 6 
Burgh (3 miles N. W. of Woodbridge), 6 
Burstall, 86 
-bury, 6 

Bury (St Edmund's), 8 
Butley, 78 
Buxhall, 43 
-by, 12 

-camp, 14 
Campsey Ashe, 22 
Capel, 120 

Carlford Hundred, 32 
Carlton, 95 
Cattawade, 111 
Cavendish, 20 
Cavenham, 50 
Charsfield, 25 
Chattisham, 50 
Chedburgh, 9 
Chediston, 89 
Chelmondiston, 95 
Chelsworth, 116 
Chevington, 96 
Chillesford, 32 
Chilton, 96 
Clare, 120 
-clay, 14 

Claydon Hundred, 18 
Clopton, 96 
Cockfield, 26 

Coddeuham, 50 
Colneis Hundred, 120 
Combs, 121 
Coney Weston, 96 
Cookley, 78 
Copdock, 121 
Cornard, 118 
Gorton, 97 
Cosford Hundred, 32 
Cotton, 97 
Cove, 121 
Covehithe, 68 
Cowlinge, 72 
Cransford, 33 
Cratfield, 26 
Greeting, 72 
Cretiugham, 50 
Crowfield, 26 
Gulford, 33 
Gulpho, 68 

-dale, 15 
Dalham, 50 
Dalliughoo, 69 
Darmsden, 19 
Darsham, 50 
Debach, 4 
Debeuham, 51 
-den, 15 
-dene, 15 
Bennington, 97 
Denham, 51 
Denstone, 98 
Depden, 15 
-don, 18 
-down, 18 

(Santon) Downham, 51 
Drinkstone, 98 
Dunningworth, 116 
Dunwich, 114 

Easton, 98 
-edish, 20 
Edwardstone, 98 
Eleigh, 78 
Ellough, 121 
Elmham, 52 
Elmsett, 85 
Elmswell, 113 
Elveden or Elden, 16 



Eriswell, 113 
Erwarton, 98 
Euston, 98 
Exning, 72 
-ey, 21 
Eye, 21 
Eyke, 122 

Fakenham, 52 
Falkenham, 52 
Farnham, 52 
Felixstowe, 90 
Felsham, 52 
-field, 24 
Finborough, 5 
Finningham, 53 
-fleet, 30 
Flemptou, 99 
Flixton, 99 
Flowton, 99 
-ford, 31 
Fornham, 53 
Foxhall, 43 
Framlingham, 53 
Framsden, 16 
Freckenham, 53 
Fressingfield, 26 
Freston, 99 
Friston, 99 
Fritton, 100 
Frostenden, 16 

-gate, 39 
Gazeley, 78 
Gedding, 73 
Gedgrave, 40 
Gippiug, 73 
Gisleham, 53 
Gislingham, 54 
Glemham, 54 
Glemsford, 33 
Gorleston, 100 
Gosbeek, 5 
-grave, 40 
Groton, 122 
Grundisburgh, 7 
Gunton, 100 

Hacheston, 100 
Hadleigh, 78 

-hale, 42 

Halesworth, 117 

-hall, 42 

-ham, 47 

Hard wick, 115 

Hargrave, 41 

Harkstead, 87 

Harleston, 100 

Hartest, 70 

Hartismere Hundred, 82 

Hasketon, 100 

-haugh, 65 

Haughley, 79 

Haverill, 67 

Hawkedon, 19 

Hawstead, 87 

Hazlewood, 116 

-heath, 66 

Helmingham, 54 

Helmley or Hemley, 79 

Hemingstone, 101 

Hengrave, 41 

Henham, 54 

Henley, 79 

Henstead, 87 

Hep worth, 117 

Herringfleet, 30 

Herringswell, 113 

Hessett or Hedgsett, 85 

Heveniugham, 54 

Higham, 54 

-hill, 67 

Hinderclay, 14 

Hintlesham, 55 

Hinton, 101 

Hitcham, 55 

-hithe, 67 

-hoe, 68 

Holbrook, 11 

HoUesley, 79 

-holt, 70 

Holton, 101 

Homersfield, 26 

Honington, 101 

Hoo, 68 

Hopton, 102 

Horham, 55 

Horningsheath or Horringer, 66 

Hoxne, 122 

Hundon, 16 



Hunston, 102 
Huntingfield, 27 
•hurst, 70 

Icklingham, 55 
Ickworth, 117 
Iken, 123 
Ilketshall, 43 
■ing, 71 
Ingham, 55 
Ipswich, 115 
Ixworth, 117 

Kediugton, 102 
Kelsale, 44 
Kentford, 33 
Kenton, 102 
Kersey, 22 
Kesgrave, 41 
Kessingland, 75 
Kettlebaston, 103 
Kettleburgh, 9 
Khkley, 80 

Kirton or Kirkton, 103 
Knettishall, 44 
Knodishall, 44 

Lackford, 33 
Lakeuheath, 66 
-land, 75 
Landguard, 123 
Langham, 56 
Lavenham, 56 
Lawshall, 45 
Laxfield, 27 
Layham, 56 
Leavenheath, 67 
Leiston, 103 
Letheringham, 56 
Levington, 103 
-ley, 77 
Lidgate, 40 
Lindsey, 23 
Linstead, 88 
Livermere, 83 
Loes Hundred, 123 
Lothingland Hundred, 76 
Lound, 124 
-low, 81 
Lowestoft, 92 

Marlesford, 34 
Martlesham, 57 
-meadow, 82 
Melford, 34 
Mellis, 124 
Melton, 103 
Mendham, 57 
Mendlesham, 57 
-mere, 82 
Metfield, 27 
Mettingham, 57 
Mickfield, 27 
Middleton, 104 
Milden, 74 
Mildenhall, 45 
Monewden, 16 
Moulton, 104 
Mutford, 35 

Nacton, 104 
Nay land, 76 
Nedging, 74 
Needham (Market), 58 
Nettlestead, 88 
Newbourn, 10 
Newton, 104 
Norton, 105 
Nowton, 105 

Oakley, 80 
Occold, 70 

Ofton or Offton, 105 
Onehouse, 124 
Ortord, 35 
Orwell, 114 
Otley, 80 
Oulton, 105 
Owsden, 17 

Pakefield, 28 
Pakenham, 58 
Palgrave, 41 
Parham, 58 
Peasenhall, 45 
Pettaugh, 65 
Pettistree, 111 
Playford, 35 

Plomesgate Hundred, 40 
Polstead, 88 
-pool, 83 



Poslingford, 35 
Prestou, 105 

Earasholt, 70 
Eattlesden, 17 
Eaydon or Eeydon, 20 
Eede, 121 
Eedgrave, 42 
Eedishara, 58 
Eedlinglield, 28 
Eendham, 58 
Eendlesham, 59 
Eickinghall, 46 
Eingsfield, 28 
Eingshall, 46 
Eisbridge Hundred, 10 
Eisby, 13 
Eishangles, 124 
Eougharu, 59 
Eumburgh, 7 
Eushbrooke, 11 
Eushmere, 83 

Samford Hundred, 36 
Sapiston, 105 
Saxham, 59 
Saxmundham, 59 
Saxstead, 88 
Semer, 88 
-set, 84 

Shadingfield, 28 
Shelland, 76 
Shelley, 80 
Sbimpling, 74 
Shipmeadow, 82 
Shotley, 80 
Shottisham, 59 
Sibton, 105 
Sizewell, 114 
Snape, 124 
Soham, 60 
Somerleyton, 106 
Somersham, 60 
Sotherton, 106 
Sotterley, 80 
Southolt, 70 
Southwold, 116 
Spexhall, 46 
Sproughton, 106 
-stall, 86 

StanningfieUl, 29 
Stansfield, 29 
Stanstead, 88 
Stanton, 106 
-stead, 86 
Sternfield, 29 
-stoke, 89 
Stoke-by-Clare, 89 
Stoke-by-Nayland, 89 
Stoke Ash, 89 
-stone, 89 
Stonham, 60 
Steven, 125 
-stow, 89 

Stow Hundred, 89 
(West) Stow, 89 
Stowmarket, 90 
Stradbroke, 11 
Stradishall, 46 
Stratford, 36 
Stuston, 106 
Stutton, 106 
Sudbourn, 10 
Sudbury, 9 
Sutton, 107 
Sweffling, 75 
Swillaud, 77 
Syleham, 61 

Tannington, 107 
Tattingstone, 107 
Theberton, 107 
Thedwestry Hundred, 111 
Thelnetham, 61 
Thetford, 36 
Thingoe Hundred, 69 
Thorington, 107 
Thorndon, 20 
Thornham, 61 
-thorpe, 91 
Thorpe, 91 

Thorpe-by-Ixworth, 91 
Thorpe-Morieux, 91 
Thrandeston, 108 
Thredling, 75 
Thurlow, 81 
Thurlston, 108 
Thurston, 108 
Thwaite, 125 
Tim worth, 117 



-toft, 92 
-ton, 92 
Tostoek, 89 
-tree, 111 
Trimley, 81 
Troston, 108 
Tuddenbam, 61 
Timstall, 86 

Ubbeston, 109 
Ufford, 37 
Uggesball, 47 

-wade, 111 

Walberswick, 115 

Waldingfield, 29 

Waldringfield, 29 

Walpole, 84 

Walsbam, 62 

Walton, 109 

Wangford (in Blytbing Hundred, N.W. 

of Southwold), 37 
Wangford (in Lackford Hundred, S.W. 

of Brandon), 37 
Wangford Hundred, 38 
Wantisden, 18 
Wasbbrook, 12 
Wattisfield, 29 
Wattisham, 62 
-well, 112 
Wenham, 62 
Wenhaston, 109 
Westerfield, 30 
Westhall, 47 
Westborpe, 91 
Westleton, 109 
Westley, 81 
Weston, 110 
(Market) Weston, 103 
Wetberden, 18 
Wetberingsett, 85 

Weybread, 125 
Wbatfield, 30 
Wheluetham, 63 
Whepstead, 88 
Wberstead, 88 
Wbitton, 110 
-wicb, 114 
-wick, 114 

Wickbambrook, 12, 64 
Wiekham Market, 63 
Wickbam Skeitb, 64 
Wilby, 13 

Wilford Hundred, 38 
Willingbam, 64 
Willisbam, 64 
Wingfield, 30 
Winston, 110 
Wissett, 85 

Wiston or Wissiugton, 110 
Witbersdale, 15 
Withersfield, 30 
Witnesbam, 64 
Wixoe or Wbixoe, 69 
-wold, 115 
-wood, 116 
Woodbridge, 11 
Woolpit, 125 
Woolverstone, 110 
Wordwell, 114 
Worliogbam, 65 
Worlington, 111 
Worlingwortb, 117 
-worth, 116 
Wortham, 65 
Wratting, 75 
Wrentham, 65 
Wyverstone, 111 

-yard, 118 
Yaxley, 81 
Yoxford, 39 

cambbidge: printed by john clay, m.a. at the univeksity peess 



[A Complete Catalogue can he had on applicatio7i.] 

Proceedings, 1911-12. Michaelmas Term. With Communica- 
tions, No. LXI. pp. 1—59. Plates I— IV. 3s. Qd net. 

Allen, F. J., M.D., Church Spires of Cambridgeshire. Brindley, H. H., 
M.A., Notes on Mediaeval Shi^Ds (n. p.). Crewdson, Bev. Canon, M.A., 
Psychical Phenomena in Ancient Mythology (n. p.). Johns, Mrs, Early 
developments in Egyptian civilization (n. p.). Petrie, Professor W. M. 
Flinders, D.C.L., Eoman Portraits from Egypt (n. p.). Eushe, Eev. J. P., 
Origin of S. Mary's Gild, Cambridge, and its connection with Corpus 
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Report for year 1910-11. 

Proceedings Lent and Easter Terms 1911-12. 7s. 6o?. net. 

Lent Term. With Communications, No. LXIL pp. 60 — 117. 
Plates V— X. 

Forster, E. H., M.A., Excavations at Corstopitum (n.p.). James, M. R., 
Litt.D., F.B.A., Earliest Inventory of Corpus Christi College. Johns, 
Eev. C. H. W. , Litt.D., Debt of Europe to the Ancient East (n. p.). 
Moir, J. Eeid, Palaeolithic Workshop of mid-palaeolithic age at Ipswich 
(n. p.). Myers, C. S., M.D., Sc.D., Primitive Music (n. p.). Seward, 
Professor A. C, F.E.S., Churches of Gothland. Walker, Rev. F. G., M.A., 
Eoman Pottery Kilns at Horningsea (to be printed later). Wyatt, A. J., 
M.A., Anglo-Saxon Eiddles (n. p.). 

Easter Term. With Communications, No. LXIII. pp. 118 — 
200. Plates XI — XIII and other illustrations. 

Brindley, H. H., M.A., Fishing boats in a window of 1557 in Auppegard 
church, Normandy. Duckworth, W. L. H., M.D., Sc.D., Eeport on 
Human Bones from Eoman and Saxon Site in Grange Eoad, Cambridge. 
Duckworth, W. L. H., M.D., Sc.D., Eeport on some Human remains from 
Hyning, Westmorland. Gaselee, S., M.A., Relic of Samuel Pepys. Palmer, 
W. M., M.D., College Dons, County Clergy and University Coachmen. 
Skeat, Professor, Litt.D., F.B.A., Place-Names of Suffolk (this paper is 
printed in the Society's 8vo. Publications). Smith, Eev. F., Comparative 
morphology of Scottish and Irish palaeolithic relics (n. p.). Walker, 
Eev. F. G., M.A., Eoman and Saxon remains from Grange Eoad, 
Cambridge. Walker, Rev. F. G., M.A., Palaeolithic Flint Implements 
from Cambridgeshire. Index to Vol. XVI. 

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